The All India Coordinated Project on Use of Saline Water in Agriculture was first sanctioned during the IV Five Year Plan under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi at four research centres namely Agra, Bapatla, Dharwad and Nagpur to undertake researches on saline water use for semi–arid areas with light textured soils, arid areas of black soils region, coastal areas and on the utilization of sewage water respectively. During the V Five Year plan, the work of the project continued at the above four centres. In the VI Five Year Plan, four centres namely Kanpur, Indore, Jobner and Pali earlier associated with AICRP on Water Management and Soil Salinity were transferred to this Project whereas the Nagpur Centre was dissociated. As the mandate of the Kanpur and Indore centres included reclamation and management of heavy textured alkali soils of alluvial and black soil regions, the Project was redesignated as All India Coordinated Research Project on Management of Salt Affected Soils and Use of Saline Water in Agriculture. Two of its Centres located at Dharwad and Jobner were shifted to Gangavati (w.e.f. 01.04.1989) and Bikaner (w.e.f. 01.04.1990) respectively to work right at the locations having large chunks of land afflicted with salinity problems. During the VII Plan, Project continued at the above locations. During VIII Five Year Plan, two new centres at Hisar and Tiruchirappalli were added. These Centres started functioning from 1 January 1995 and 1997, respectively. Further, during XII Five Year Plan, four new Volunteer centres namely Bathinda, Port Blair, Panvel and Vyttila were added to this AICRP. These four centres started functioning from 2014. At present, this AICRP has 8 main cooperating centres and 4 volunteer centres with project coordinating unit at ICAR-CSSRI, Karnal to address issues of reclamation and management of salt affected soils and use of poor quality ground waters under different agro-climatic conditions.
To execute research and extension works as per its mandate to provide site-specific technologies for management of salt affected soils and use of saline/ sodic waters in agriculture for enhancing and sustaining productivity under such conditions.
The mandates of AICRP is to develop site-specific technologies and the research programme of the Project are undertaken as per the following mandates/ objectives:
- Survey and characterization of the salt affected soils and ground water quality in major irrigation commands.
- Evaluate the effects of poor quality waters on soils and crops and plants.
- Develop standards/guidelines for assessing the quality of irrigation waters.
- Develop management practices for utilization of waters having high salinity/alkalinity and toxic ions.
- Develop and test technologies for the conjunctive use of poor quality waters in different agro-ecological zones/major irrigation commands.
- Develop alternate land use strategies for salt-affected soils (Agro- forestry)
- Screen crop cultivars and tree species appropriate to saline/alkali soil conditions.
Thrust Areas /Priorities:
- Generation of data bases on salt affected soils and poor quality waters
- Environmental impacts of irrigation and agriculture in irrigation commands and at benchmark sites
- Micro-irrigation system for saline water use to high value crops; to develop crop production functions with improved irrigation techniques
- Crop production with polluted (Agra Canal) and toxic water and bio-remediation strategies
- Water quality limits for new crops/ cropping pattern
- Development of new sources of fresh water for conjunctive use (Rainwater harvesting) and groundwater recharge
- Pollution of surface and ground water including modelling
- Management of abandoned aquaculture ponds
- Seawater intrusion and modelling
- Extension of Doruvu technology and test cheaper alternatives for skimming of fresh water floating on saline water
- Survey and characterization of toxic elements in coastal groundwater
- Comparative performance of various amendments for sodic soils of Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh
- Study feasibility of land modifications for rainwater harvesting and multi-enterprise in sodic soils with deep groundwater level.
- Dry land reclamation technologies
- Land drainage of waterlogged saline lands for cost minimization
- Conservation agriculture/multi-enterprise agriculture/ multiple use of water
- Alternate land management including cultivation of unconventional petro-plants, medicinal, aromatic and plants of industrial application
- Screening of salt tolerant crop varieties developed by ICAR-CSSRI, other crop institute and crop AICRPs
- Standardizing Integrated Farming System Models for Salt Affected Soils
- Transfer of technologies through ORP/ Field demonstrations
- During XI Plan, Project continued with an outlay of Rs. 2125.15 lakh at these centres with the Coordinating Unit at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal.
- During XII Plan total outlay of the scheme was fixed at Rs. 4638.67 lakh including the state share of Rs. 963.67 lakh. The sanctioned allocation (ICAR-Share) remained Rs. 00 Lakh and expenditure Rs. 2684.85 Lakhs.
- Budget of 2,135.59 Lakhs (as ICAR Share) will be provided for 2017-2020.
Former Project Coordinators
|1||Dr JSP Yadav||14.04.1972 – 10.08.1982*|
|2||Dr IP Abrol||10.08.1982 – 29.09.1986*|
|3||Dr RK Gupta||30.09.1986 – 10.02.1996|
|4||Dr OS Tomar||18.02.1996 – 13.06.1997*|
|5||Dr PS Minhas||13.06.1997 – 16.05.2007|
|6||Dr OS Tomar||17.05.2006 – 05.06.2007*|
|7||Dr SK Gupta||06.06.2007 – 30.09.2011|
|8||Dr DK Sharma||01.10.2011 – 26.04.2012*|
|9||Dr SK Ambast||29.04.2012 – 21.01.2015|
|10||Dr DK Sharma||22.01.2015 – 27.03.2016*|
*Acting, Project Coordinator
Staff Position at the Cooperating Centres
Note: There is no approved staff position at Volunteer Centres. The contractual research staff is provided through operational contingency.
- Project Coordinating Unit
|Coordinating Unit||Project Coordinator & Location along with complete address||Phone, Fax and E-mail addresses||Activities Undertaken|
AICRP SAS&USW, ICAR-CSSRI, Karnal
|Dr. M. J. Kaledhonkar,
AICRP on SAS&USW, ICAR-CSSRI, Kachhawa road, Karnal 132 001 (Haryana)
|1. Developing guidelines on use of saline water
2. Use of saline water in agro-forestry
3. Modeling salt and water transport and crop response in saline environment
4. Generating chemical/physical parameters for computers models
5. Management of domestic and industrial wastewaters
6. Bio-drainage and wastewater disposal strategies
7. Management of adhoc projects approved by the council
|S. No.||Name of the centre||Principal Investigator & Location along with complete address||Phone and E-mail addresses||Activities Undertaken|
|1||Agra||Dr. R.B. Singh, OIC,
AICRP on SAS&USW
Raja Balwant Singh College, Bichpuri, Agra-238105 (Uttar Pradesh)
|1. Groundwater quality survey
2. Water quality limits in relation to cropping system
3. Develop strategies for conjunctive use of saline and canal water
4. Improving the nutrient use efficiency in saline environment
5. Improved irrigation techniques and salt water management
6. Rain water management for salinity control
7. Alternate land use through agro-forestry and horticulture
8. Operational research for saline water use
9. Identification of appropriate cultivars of crops for saline/alkali environments in different agro‑ecological regions
|2||Bapatla||Dr. (Mrs.) P. Prasuna Rani,
OIC, AICRP on SAS&USW,
Regional Research Station, ANG Ranga Agricultural University Bapatla (Andhra Pradesh)
|1. Water quality and soil surveys and monitoring of benchmark sites
2. Crop‑water production functions with saline water in coastal sands
3. Water quality limits with improved irrigation technologies
4. Improved Dorouv technology
5. Upconing problems of sea water in coastal sandy soils
6. Fertility management of saline coastal sandy soils.
7. Operational research on dorouv technology/saline water use
8. Reclamation of abandoned aqua ponds
9. Reclamation of waterlogged saline soils through mole drainage
10. Identification of appropriate cultivars of crops for saline/alkali environments in different agro‑ecological regions
11. Sea weed plantation
|3||Bikaner||Dr. S.R. Yadav,
AICRP on SAS&USW
SK Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan)
|1. Water quality surveys
2. Salt and water balance in gypsiferous soils of the IGNP Command
3. Irrigation management for saline water use
4. Drainage for control of salinity and water logging
5. Develop practices for use of nitrate and fluoride rich waters
6. Nutrient management of saline gypsiferous soils
7. Identification of appropriate cultivars of crops for saline/alkali environments in different agro‑ecological regions
|4||Gangawati||Dr. Vishwanath Jowkin,
AICRP on SAS&USW
Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gangawati (Karnataka)
|1. Ground water quality and soils salinity surveys
2. Performance evaluation of drainage system in T.B.P. command
3. Reuse of drainage effluents/conjunctive use
4. Drainage requirement of crops in saline black soils
5. Performance of tree species in saline black soils including bio-drainage
6. Organic materials for improving productivity of saline soils
7. Tolerance of medicinal and aromatic plants to soil salinity
8. Reclamation of rain fed alkali lands
9. Identification of appropriate cultivars of crops for saline/alkali environments in different agro‑ecological regions
|5||Hisar||Dr. Satyavan Chahar
AICRP on SAS&USW
Department of Soils, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana)
|1. Ground water quality surveys
2. Conjunctive use of canal and saline ground/drainage waters
3. Water production functions under salt stress conditions
4. Water quality guidelines for sprinklers/drip systems
5. Modelling crop yields under salt stress and strategies for mitigation
6. Management of alkali water for vegetable production
7. Identification of appropriate cultivars of crops for saline/alkali environments in different agro‑ecological regions
|6||Indore||Dr. U.R. Khandkar
AICRP on SAS&USW
Agriculture College, RVS Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Indore (Madhya Pradesh)
|1. Ground water and soil salinity surveys
2. Management of heavy textured alkali soils
3. Crop‑water production functions for alkali black soils
4. Develop parameters for incorporating the effect of Cl/SO4, Mg/Ca and SAR on sodification and soil permeability
5. Hydrosalinity modelling in Omkeshwar Command
6. Alternate land use of alkali black soils for agro-forestry
7. Tolerance of medicinal and aromatic plants to soil alkali stress
8. Management of wastewaters
|7||Kanpur||Dr. Ravendra Kumar
AICRP on SAS&USW
Agriculture College, CS Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
|1. Groundwater quality surveys
2. Water treatment techniques for use of alkali water
3. Conjunctive use of alkali and canal water
4. Performance of tree species in alkali soils
5. Fertility management under conditions of alkali water use
6. Soil/ land/ water resource inventories in Ramganga/Sharda Sahayak Command
7. Resource conservation technologies for alkali soils
8. Identification of appropriate cultivars of crops for saline/alkali environments in different agro‑ecological regions
|8||Tiruchirappalli||Dr. P. Balasubramaniam
AICRP on SAS&USW
AD Agricultural College and Research Institute, TN Agril University Tiruchirappalli (Tamil Nadu)
|1. Mitigation strategies for adverse effects of salts on soil and crops
2. Conjunctive use of poor quality ground and canal waters
3. Survey of poor quality ground waters and salt affected soils
4. Alternate land use of salt-affected soils through agro-forestry
5. Multi-enterprise agriculture for higher income
6. Use of Distillery Spent wash for alkali land and water reclamation
7. Identification of appropriate cultivars of crops for saline/alkali environments in different agro‑ecological regions
- Voluntary Centres
|S. No.||Name of the centre||Principal Investigator & Location along with complete address||Phone and E-mail addresses||Activities Undertaken|
|1||Bathinda||Dr BK Yadav
Regional Research Station, Punjab Agril University, Bathinda (Punjab)
|1. Monitoring of ground water quality for irrigation purpose
2. Exploring land-water management options for crop cultivation in water logged salt affected areas
|2||Panvel||Dr. S.B. Dodake
Khar Land Research Station, Panvel (Maharashtra)
|1. Assessment of soil properties of coastal region
2. Development of IFS model
3. Assessment of ground water qualities
4. Suitability of saline water for irrigation
|3||Port Blair||Dr. A. Velumurgan,
ICAR-Central Island Agril Research Institute, Port Blair (A&N Islands)
|1. Assessment of ground water quality and soil salinity status of A& N Islands
2. Isolation and characterization of microbes to enhance crop performance under saline environment
3. Evaluation of alternate land management options
|4||Vyttila||Dr. A.K. Sreelatha
Rice Research Station, Kerala Agril University, Vyttila, Kochi (Kerala)
|09446328761||1. Survey, characterization and mapping of ground water quality in the coastal areas of Kerala
2. Delineation and mapping of salt affected soils in the coastal areas of Kerala
3. Integrated farming system for sustainable land use in Pokkali lands
- Agra 2. Bapatla 3. Bikaner 4. Gangavati 5. Hisar 6. Indore 7. Kanpur
- Karnal (PC Unit) 9. Tiruchirappalli 10. Bathinda (VC) 11. Panvel (VC) 12.Port Blair (VC) 13. Vyttila (VC)
Main Centres (8 Nos)
This centre was started at R.B.S. College of Agriculture, Bichpuri, Agra (Uttar Pradesh) in 1972 during IV Five year plan to undertake research on saline water use for semi-arid areas with light textured soils and on the utilization of sewage water. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 4 (Northern plain, hot semi-arid region) and located at 27020’ N Latitude and 77090’ E Longitude.
- Data base on ground water quality including mapping for Agra, Mathura, Aligarh, Firozabad, Etah, Mainpuri and Etawah of Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan have been completed. Salt affected soils of UP and adjoining areas of Rajasthan were also mapped. Alkali groundwater is in 36.9 per cent area while saline groundwater is in 18.1 per cent area. In rest area (45%) groundwater is of good quality. In Bharatpur district of Rajasthan 20.0 % area is of alkali water and 63.0 per cent area is saline water and rest only 13.0 per cent area is of good quality.
- Low cost agronomic management options for use of poor quality ground waters such as seed rate, additional doses of nutrients, bed planting, pre-sowing irrigation with fresh water are being developed.
- Conjunctive use of canal and saline/ alkali waters under different cyclic, mixing, seasonal cyclic, long-term annual cyclic modes were tried and best options were identified under limited canal water supply condition.
- Low cost technology for artificial ground water recharge to improve quality of saline ground water through dilution was developed and implemented in farmers’ fields. This technology provides an opportunity to small and marginal farmers to use diluted ground water for pre-sowing or early irrigations resulting in 10-30% increase in yield of mustard/wheat.
- Tolerance of several vegetable crops viz., capsicum and okra for salinity of irrigation water was tested under drip and surface irrigation system. For the same yield levels of capsicum, saline water of 8 dS/m could be used under drip irrigation as compared to 4 dS/m with surface irrigation.
- Technologies for use of poor quality groundwater such as RSC management with gypsum, conjunctive use of low and high salinity water for irrigation, post sowing sprinkler irrigation, dhaincha green manuring, sowing of crops in rain conserved moisture and irrigation with saline water with crop and fertilizer management were demonstrated through ORP in Agra/ Bharatpur region resulting in 10-20% increase in yield and improving farmers’ net income.
- Plastic low tunnel technology for off season cultivation of vegetables using saline water with drip irrigation. The irrigation water of salinity (ECiw) as 4 and 8 dS/m was used in case of tomato and bitter gourd. It was observed that on an average about 150 percent higher fruit yield was harvested in case of plastic low tunnel with drip as compared to surface irrigation.
- Crop diversification under saline environment in semi-arid region: On basis of field experiment, it was found that survival of pomegranate was 100% with saline water having EC as high as 8 dS/m using drip irrigation. It is possible to shift from field crop to horticultural crop. However, fruit yield was affected by salinity. The yield at 12 dS/m was 34% less compared to Best Available Water (BAW).
- Water production functions using double line source sprinkler system were developed for wheat and Mustard crop considering irrigation water quantity and irrigation water salinity/ alkalinity.
- The bed sowing method was found better compared to flat sowing method with saline water irrigation in case of cotton, pearl millet and wheat. The techniques was demonstrated on framers’ fields through ORP.
- Effects saline water irrigation on yields of non-conventional crops such as Tulasi, sesame, month bean, isabgol, fennel and fenugreek were assessed and relative yields at different irrigation water salinity (ECiw 4, 6 and 8 dS/m) were recorded.
- Effects of irrigation with treated sewage water from Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) at Dandhupura, Agra on soil properties (ECe, pH, available N, and organic carbon) crop yield and ground water quality were assessed in case of pearl-millet, wheat, mustard, potato, cauliflower, coriander, spinach, sorghum, barley, cabbage and berseem. The yields of crops irrigated with treated sewage water were compared with yields of crops irrigated with fresh ground water. In mustard, wheat, barley and pearl millet yield increase from 6.6-23.8% was recorded and in vegetables yield increase from 18.2- 75.0% was recorded. However in other crops yield increase was 26.4-26.8% due to the high organic carbon and available N status of treated sewage water.
- Screening of varieties of wheat, mustard, barley, sorghum, cotton, safflower, cluster bean and lady finger for salinity was conducted by centre.
This centre was started at Regional Research Station, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Bapatla (Andhra Pradesh) in 1972 during IVth Five year plan to undertake research in coastal regions. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 18 (Eastern coastal plain, hot sub-humid to semi-arid region) and located at 150 54’ N Latitude and 80029’ E Longitude.
- Groundwater quality map of undivided Andhra Pradesh for 23 districts up to 2008 was completed and the technical bulletin was released in 2013 after analyzing 35000 groundwater samples for pH, EC, cations, anions, RSC and SAR.
- Benchmark survey of soil and water was carried out continuously for 41 years since 1974 in Guntur District. It was found that the salinity of groundwater increased from 1.9 to 10.3 dS/m at various locations due to over exploitation of groundwater. However, the increase in soil salinity was up to 4.4 dS/m. To combat these twin problems, groundwater recharge, the conjunctive use of water, gypsum application to soil, selection of salt tolerant varieties, sub-surface drainage systems, crop diversification into fodder crops in adverse conditions were suggested.
- Salt affected soils of Krishna, East Godavari, West Godavari, Nellore, Chittoore, Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh state were collected using remote sensing data and characterized. Soil maps at 1:50,000 scale were prepared for all the eight districts using GIS.
- Developed “Improved Doruvu Technology” for skimming of fresh water floating on saline ground water in coastal sandy soils. The technology replaced the traditional doruvu and it has become very popular amongst the farmers of coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh. Around 97 skimming wells are installed. Besides, fresh water for agriculture, the technology has potential application for drinking water supply in coastal belts of Andhra Pradesh.
- Drip and sprinkler irrigation helped in reducing the ill effects of saline irrigation water upto 4 dS/m in different vegetable crops in coastal sandy soils. The performance of crops under shadenets is found performing better than open field cultivation with saline irrigation water.
- Amendments viz., gypsum, pyrites, FYM, pressmud cake, etc have been indentified for management of high RSC waters for irrigation to enhance the crop productivity.
- Sub-surface drainage systems (SSD) viz., closed SSD, open SSD, tile drainage, and corrugated perforated pipelines for reclamation of salt affected and waterlogged soils have been successfully tested on ORP site in coastal agricultural systems and technology is ready for transfer. The subsurface drainage system for reclamation of waterlogged saline soils was tested at Uppugunduru and Appikatla in Krishna Western Delta. The technology has potential in 1.3 lakh ha of waterlogged saline soils of coastal regions and major irrigation command areas of Andhra Pradesh. The soil salinity in drainage area reduced from 8.4 to 1.7 dS/m and consequently paddy yields increased from initial level of 1.8 t/ha to 6.75 t/ha at the end of 7 years.
- Technology for reclamation of Abandoned Aqua pond lands was developed and demonstrated in coastal AP. Based on survey, it is estimated nearly 3.4 lakh ha area is affected on eastern coast. These fields are belonged to small and marginal farmers and through this technology, it is possible to get rice yields of tune of 4-5 t/ha during initial first or two years of reclamation. The yields were increased by 15-30% in paddy with the availability of sufficient irrigation water.
- Screening of various crops for salinity tolerance of irrigation water in cereals like rice, maize, oilseed crops like sunflower, soybean, groundnut were carried out.
- Screening of various vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, okra, cluster bean, bitter gaurd, chillies, capsicum root crops like radish, carrot and leafy vegetables like spinach/palak) upto 6 dS/m revealed the salinity tolerance in the order of clusterbean >tomato>raddish>carrot> brinjal>okra>bitter guard>chillies >palak > capsicum.
- Training programmes to farmers, students and other stakeholders like Mandal Agril.Officers., I & CAD engineers, A.E.O’s, Farmers from various districts through ATMA collaboration, were conducted to disseminate the technology developed at SWS, Bapatla.
This centre was initially started at SKN College of Agriculture; Jobner in 1980 during Sixth Five year plan and later on it was shifted to Bikaner w.e.f. April 01, 1990 to undertake research in arid and semi-arid regions. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 2 (Western plain, hot arid region) and located at 280 01’ N Latitude and 73035’ E Longitude.
- Ground water quality map of arid zone of Rajasthan was prepared. Water quality maps of Jaipur, Bikaner, Churu, Nagaur, Jaisalmer, Sikar and Sriganganagar districts have been prepared by the center.
- Ber cultivation with saline water using drip was established successfully. Saline irrigation water (up to 8.0 dS/m) was used through drip without any significant reduction in yield.
- Subsurface drainage system was tested for reclamation of waterlogged saline soils under IGNP command.
- Following technologies were developed by centre for use of High RSC waters:
- Studies on mitigating adverse effect of high RSC water revealed that for sustainable production of pearl-millet-wheat crop rotation in sandy coarse textured soils under sprinkler system with water having RSC around 10.0 me/l gypsum [at] equivalent to 5.0 mel-1 RSC neutralization of each irrigation with FYM [at]10t/ ha should be added in soil treated water. It was found that RSC of water treated through gypsum tank could be neutralized by 2.0 to 2.0 mq/q. Additional gypsum as per requirement should be added before sowing. Further a periodical monitoring of GR of soil is necessary while using high RSC water for irrigation.
- Application of gypsum [at] 50% GR every third year has been recommended for using high RSC waters. Mustard should be preferred over wheat.
- Soil application of gypsum [at] 50 % GR and equivalent to partial neutralization upto 4.0 meL-1 of high RSC water is recommended for pearl millet, mustard and cluster bean. Barley can tolerate RSC up to 8.0 meL-1. Addition of gypsum reduced the alkalinity of soil and prevented its further degradation with the use of high RSC water in Sikar district.
- For the use of high RSC water in calcareous soils, mixing of pyrite [at] 50 % GR in soil twenty days before sowing or two sprays of 2 % FeSO4 + 0.1 % Citric acid at 30 and 40 days after sowing are recommended for higher yields of mustard and cluster bean.
- Adverse effect of high RSC water (7.5 meL-1) under sprinkler irrigation can be reduced if 5.0 t ha-1 FYM and gypsum [at] 50 % GR is applied to soil.
- About 2.5 me/litre RSC of water can be neutralized by passing high RSC water through gypsum tank.
- Light and frequent irrigation minimizes the accumulation of salts while longer irrigation intervals induce salinity in upper layer of soil
- Nitrate content of irrigation water up to 80 ppm has no adverse effect on yield of wheat. Further the adverse effect of nitrate in irrigation waters can be mitigated by application of potash
- Sewage water of Bikaner can be successfully used for vegetable production provided it is passed through effluent treatment plant
- If two sources of good and saline water are available, mixing of these water for irrigation should be done in such a way that EC of mixed water does not exceed beyond 3.75 dSm-1 for ground nut and 5.0 dSm-1 for wheat for sustainable production in light textured soil of Bikaner district
- Saline water in conjunction with good quality water can be use if one or two irrigation of good quality water is applied at the initial stages rather than at later stages in Pearl millet-wheat crop
- Better yields of tomato and bottle gourd were recorded with water having ECiw up to 3.0 dSm-1 in sandy soils under drip irrigation system
- ECiw values for 50% yield reduction in wheat, mustard, cluster bean and groundnut crops were found to be 5.9, 5.0, 2.9 and 2.7 dSm-1, respectively, under sprinkler irrigation in light textured soils
- Most of the vegetables can successfully be grown upto 3 dS/m salinity of irrigation water if water is applied through drip irrigation without any reduction in yields. It was found that even yields increased at 3.0 dS/m salinity of water
- Irrigation water with salinity more than 2.5 dS/m is not suitable for groundnut cultivation under sprinkler irrigation
- In moderately saline irrigation water, the salt tolerance of crops could be increased by adding 25% extra fertilizer nutrient than the recommended dose along with 5 t/ha of FYM.
- Establishment of critical limits of irrigation water salinity under sprinkler for some major crops of area
- Identification of cotton/mustard/wheat varieties for salinity tolerance under drip and flood irrigation
- Seed soaking and two sprays of K2SO4 (200 ppm) at 45 and 60 DAS were found promising in mitigating adverse effect of salinity of irrigation water and increasing crop yields under drip system for wheat and groundnut. In isabgol also, two sprays of two sprays of K2SO4 (200 ppm) proved effective.
- Performance of wheat varieties (Raj 3077, Raj 4188, KRL 210 and KRL 213) was evaluated under drip using varying levels of salinity of irrigation water (BAW, 4 dS/m, 8 dS/m and 12 dS/m). Variety Raj 3077 established its superiority over rest of the other varieties at all the levels of ECiw.
- Increase in the levels of ECiw beyond 4 dS/m caused significant reduction in the yield of all the four varieties tested, yet, magnitude of reduction was less in KRL 210 and KRL 213.
- The ECe of soil at harvest of wheat was affected by salinity levels of irrigation water in different soil layers up to 45 cm depth at 0, 15 and 30 cm lateral distances from the drippers. The maximum salinity was observed in 0 to 15 cm layers which decreased in the sub-surface layers of 15 to 30 and 30 to 45 cm depths respectively at all the levels of ECiw. Salt distribution in soil under drip irrigation showed accumulation of salts on outer periphery of wetting zone i.e. movement of salts along with moisture front.
- Drip geometry of 60 cm x 30 cm (lateral x emitters) have been found suitable for irrigation with saline water in groundnut, wheat and isabgol. Irrigation at 0.8 PE of saline water under drip was found optimum for groundnut. Yield of ground nut was not affected up to 4 dS/m of irrigation water salinity under drip. The wheat yield was slightly reduced at 8 dS/m. However, wheat yield was drastically reduced above 8 dS/m. Isabgol can be grown successfully with ECiw of 4 dS/m under drip.
- Cactus varieties are being grown with drip as fodder crop and nutritional status of cactus as fodder is being evaluated.
This centre was initially started at Dharwad in 1972 during Fourth Five year plan and later on it was shifted to Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gangawati (Karnataka) w.e.f. April 01, 1989 to work in areas where large chunk of land affected by salinity problem occurred. It situated in Agro ecological region 6 (Deccan plateau, hot semi-arid region) and located at 150 00’ N Latitude and 76000’ E Longitude.
- Characterization of underground water samples for irrigation in Bagalkot, Bellary, Bijapur, Davanagere, Koppal, Raichur, Gulbarga, Yadgir, Dharwad and Gadag districts of Karnataka.
- Tree species such as C. equisetifolia, D.sissoo, Glyricidia and A.auriculiformis have been found promising under saline waterlogged conditions of Tunga Bhadra Project (TBP) command area.
- Fruit species such as wood apple, jamun, pomegranate and sapota have been found promising under saline waterlogged conditions of TBP area.
- The threshold water table depth for cotton is found to be 95 cm in saline Vertisols of TBP. Yields are drastically reduced when water table is shallower than 95 cm. On saline soils having water table deeper than 95 cm, cotton should be irrigated once in 12-15 days for realizing higher yields.
- On saline soils, cotton and wheat can be successfully grown up to 5-7 dS/m and safflower 4-5 dS/m. Brinjal can be grown in saline (ECe: 4-6 dS/m) vertisols. Ridgeguard can be grown in saline (ECe: 4-6 dS/m) vertisols. Beet root can be successfully grown on saline soils with ECe up to 6-8 dS/m without any yield reduction.
- Tree species such as A.nilotica, D.sissoo and C.equisetifolia were found efficient in intercepting canal seepage when grown parallel to distributaries/canals. Such tree plantations control water logging and salinity in low-lying aera.
- Salt-tolerant crops such as cotton, wheat and sunflower can be grown successfully even in high saline soils (12-15 dS/m) by providing pre-sowing irrigation (of 6 cm depth). It is observed that salts in surface soil (0-30 cm) are leached out approximately at 60% leaching efficiency during pre-sowing irrigation.
- Interceptor drains of 10 cm dia. placed 1.7m deep, 500 m away from distributary intercepts the incoming canal seepage and prevents secondary soil salinization in the low-lying area Sindhanur near Gangavathi.
- To control salinity and water logging in undulating soils, a technology of multilayered interceptor drain was developed. Plants and grasses were identified for intercepting seepage. Bio drainage studies at ARS, Gangavathi revealed that planting of tree species such as Acacia nilotica, Delbergia sissoo and Casuarina equisetifolia in 2 to 4 row spacing 5 m away and parallel to canal were quite efficient in intercepting the canal seepage. Such plantations could intercept more than 80% of the seepage and relieve water logging problem along the canals.
- Subsurface drainage technology has been implemented. It has been established that reuse of drainage water is possible and hence it has become a source of irrigation water to many farmers located in the tail ends of the irrigation commands. Subsurface drainage lowered the water table, reduced soil ECe and increased the yield of crops. It has been shown that payback period of this technology is 2-3 years depending upon the initial status of soil and crops grown following land reclamation. Sub-surface drainage system coupled with nala cleaning is quite efficient in reclaiming salt affected soils in turn result in higher crop yields.
- The controlled drainage was developed by centre. It could save about 17.5% irrigation water (104 cm vs 126 cm) and 52.5% nitrogen (5.32 kg/ha 11.20 kg/ha) as compared to conventional drainage.
- In salt-affected soils, paddy can be successfully grown by adopting continuous ponding method of irrigation. Intermittent ponding badly affects paddy yields. The continuous ponding assures better leaching of salts compared to intermittent ponding.
- Due to continuous paddy cultivation, water table is raising at the rate of 10 cm per year in TBP command.
- In saline soils of TBP canal command, growing dhaincha in a paddy-paddy cropping sequence resulted in higher paddy yields apart from improvement in soil fertility.
- binana, a leguminous tree species has been identified as a promising genotype for saline/water logged soils.
- A salinity tolerant, high yielding mid early paddy genotype CSR-22 was released for cultivation in saline soils of TBP command area.
- Subsurface drainage system coupled with nala cleaning is quite efficient in reclaiming salt affected soils in turn result in higher crop yields.
- On saline soils (ECe 8-10 dS/m), irrigating cotton through drip at 2 to 3 days interval with saline water (<2.2 dS/m) resulted in higher kapas yield.
- In saline soils (ECe 6-7 dS/m) moving water table deeper than 1.2 m, drip irrigation at 2-3 days interval with saline water (<2.2 dS/m) or furrow irrigation once in 15-18 days resulted in higher brinjal yields.
- On saline soils (ECe 5 dS/m), sowing sunflower in ridges and furrows and application of 20 kg extra N resulted in higher yields.
- Under rainfed conditions, making tied and ridges in the beginning of the monsoon causes leaching of salts to below the root zone and thus help to obtain higher sunflower yield.
- Early sowing (June) of cotton with available saline (with 4 irrigations) and then switching over to canal (August) water realized the highest kapas yield (22.1 q/ha) compared to normal sowing with only good water during August (12.6 q/ha). Further, the salt balance remained favourable and did not cause any concern of using saline water.
- Application of pressmud [at] 2.5 t/ha or poultry manure [at] 2.5 t/ha or dhaincha [at] 5 t/ha or FYM [at] 10 t/ha to kharif paddy and 125% RDN to the kharif and rabi paddy resulted in higher yields and improved the soil properties.
- Threshold soil salinity levels (ECt) were worked out for Ashwagandha (4.87, 4.41 dS/m for seed and root respectively), Vetiver (6.0 dS/m), Palmarosa (5.02 dS/m), Khus grass (6.0 dS/m), Kamakasturi (4.8 dS/m), Tulsi (5.1 dS/m), Citronella (7.2 dS/m), Shatavari (3.96 dS/m) etc.
- Citronella could be grown in saline Vertisols of ECe up to 7.2 dS/m.
- Rhodes, para and grazing guinea forage grasses could be grown in saline Vertisols of ECe up to 4-8 dS/m.
- Applying 20 % extra good quality irrigation water through drip with mulch for cotton crop under saline soils increases 3% of soil moisture improves leaching of salts in the root zone and also control weeds.
- Before puddling operation, land leveling by laser leveller under PTR method saves 11% of water compared to traditional method of leveling.
- Before sowing operation, land leveling by laser leveller under DSR method saves 6% of water compared to traditional method of leveling.
This Centre was sanctioned during VIII five year plan and started functioning at C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana) w.e.f. January 01, 1995. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 2 (Western plain, hot arid region) and located at 29010’ N Latitude and 75046’ E Longitude.
- Groundwater quality of thirteen district of Haryana was assessed on GIS and GIS based.
- Sodic water of high RSC (11.6me/l) can be successfully utilized through neutralization with gypsum along with FYM for various vegetable crops.
- Demonstrations on amelioration of sodic soil and use of sodic water for wheat and mustard crops for technology transfer were conducted in south -western part of Haryana.
- Computer based calculation of gypsum requirement (Utility Application) for amelioration of sodic soil/water was developed in Hindi and English languages. It is widely used by extension/Agriculture field functionary. The farmers can also easily work out gypsum requirement for sodic soils and sodic water.
- Irrigation with saline water of EC upto (6-8 dS/m) can be used in conjunction with canal water in cotton –wheat and pearl millet –mustard rotation alternately with 2C:1S. The technology paves way to arrest secondary salinization in canal command.
- Saline water of EC 7.5 dS/m can be used in vegetable crops through drip irrigation method.
- Sprinkler irrigation proved better than flood irrigation at all levels of saline water irrigation.
- Number of amendments and bye-products such as gypsum, pyrites, distillery spent wash and press mud were identified for sodic soil reclamation.
- Gypsum bed technology for RSC water for location specific situation was developed.
This centre was earlier associated with AICRP Water Management and later on, it was transferred to this project during VI five year plan at Agricultural College, M.V.R.S. Krishi Vishwa Vidhyalaya, Indore (MP) to undertake research on reclamation and management of heavy texture soils of alluvial and black soils region. It is situated in Agro-ecological region 5 (Central highland region) and located at 220 14’ N Latitude and 76001’ E Longitude. About 0.242 million ha lands are affected by salinity/ sodicity in M. P. Out of which 33,898 ha is located in black soil region.
- The delineation of salt affected soils with the help of remote sensing tools revealed that 25127, 28612, 9245, 22692, 19547, 15437, 3150, 2054, 9208 and 3814 ha area is having salt affected problem in Bhind, Gwalior, Datia, Morena, Sheopur, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Hoshangabad, Dhar and Ratlam districts, respectively. In Gujarat state 11,14,387 ha area is affected by the problem of salinity/ sodicity.
- In Indore, Ujjain, Datia, Gwalior, Morena, Sheopur, Bhind, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Hoshangabad, Dhar, Ratlam, Jhabua and Alirajpur districts of M.P. about 10, 20, 28, 22, 33, 14, 48, 11, 27, 4, 7, 3, 4 and 6 % samples are having salinity/sodicity problem.
- A new criterion for classification of alkali soils has been established by the centre for black clay soils that soil properties starts deteriorate at soil ESP of 10 rather than 15 as given in previous hypothesis for alluvial plains of Haryana and Punjab. Soil pH has no relation with extent of sodicity (ESP) in black alkali soils.
- Application of Gypsum [at] 70-80 % of gypsum requirement is advocated. If finance is a constraint split dose of gypsum [at] 50% of gypsum requirement followed by 25% of gypsum requirement in the following year can be adopted. Gypsum should be mixed in the upper 15 cm of the soil and standing water of 5 cm should be kept for at least 15 days. The product of chemical reaction should be flushed off through surface drains.
- Application of 25 to 50 tons of sand gravel in plough layer facilitates seed germination, checks crust formation, helps in plant establishment and ultimately results in good crop yield in black alkali soils.
- Planting of tolerant grass species (Marvel, Para and Napier) in a sodic Vertisols for a period of more than two years could be an effective measure in conservation of soil, water and nutrient resources.
- Realizing the shortage of gypsum, technology to use Distillery spent wash (DSW) for reclamation of alkali soils has been developed. In India about 257 distilleries generate 40.72 million-kilo litres of spent wash annually. Application of spent wash [at] 5.0 cm is highly effective for reclamation of salt affected black soils. Paddy – Wheat cropping sequence be successfully taken up after reclamation through spent wash. Application of Raw Spent Wash [at] 2.5 lakh L per ha along with lagoon sludge [at] 5 t/ha helps in reclamation of sodic Vertisols and successful crop production. Soybean crop can be successfully grown after reclamation of sodic Vertisols using spent wash [at] 5 lakh litre per hectare for 3 years at initial ESP 40.
- The planting geometry of rice and cotton of 20 x 15 cm2 and 45 x 45 cm2 is recommended such soils.
- The seed rate of wheat should be 1.5 times more than of normal soil.
- The sodic soils are poor in zinc status hence application of 25 Kg ZnSO4 / ha (every year) to rice crop is recommended.
- The sub-surface drainage was not suitable for sodic Vertisols. However, it is effective in sodic sandy loam soil with shallow water table condition. It helps in lowering of water table and reclamation of sodic soils along with crop improvement. The payback period of this technology is 2-3 years depending upon the initial status of soil and crops grown.
- Light and frequent irrigation was found suitable for irrigation in sodic Vertisols.
- Screening crop varieties (paddy, Sorghum, Maize, Safflower, Mustard, Wheat, Barley) was done for sodic
- Developed Raised and Sunken bed technology for reclamation of rainfed alkali Vertisols wherein cotton crop was planted on raised beds whereas paddy crop was transplanted in sunken beds. The results indicated that raised and sunken bed system is good to conserve soil, water and nutrients and provides good surface drainage to upland crops grown on the raised beds. The system helped in water (50%), soil (95%), nutrients (90%) conservation and improved crop production and the system is economically viable
- Azadirachta indica and Accacia nilotica, the tree species along with native check plant Prosopis juliflora are helpful in reclamation of sodic Vertisols. A successful crop production can be taken up after removal of tree species (10-12 years) under rainfed situations.
- Sapota and Ber were found to be sodicity tolerant fruit plants. Babchi, sadabahar and lemon grass are found suitable for cultivation sodic Vertisols up to ESP 30. Ashwagandh was found to very sensitive to sodic condition as it could not survive even at ESP 20.
- Cabbage, cauliflower and brijal can be successfully grown in sodic Vertisols up to ESP 45.
- Addition of gypsum [at] 100 % neutralizing value of sodium on the basis of irrigation requirement of crop before sowing mitigated the bad effects of poor quality water on soil properties particularly on soil ESP.
- Incorporation of Dhaincha as green manures before planting of paddy every year in sodic black clay soils is advocated as it helps in reclamation of sodic soils (up to ESP 45) and ultimately improvement of crop production.
- Use of perforated vertical pipes (110 mm diameter) in vicinity of fruit trees for irrigation (for establishment of newly planted fruit trees) is found good and cheaper alternative to drip system for water saving up to 30-35 % in alkali soil.
- Use of mulch or flooding (after 60-75 days) is advocated to mitigate the salt buildup hazards due to use of marginally saline water through drip fertigation in vegetable crops.
This centre earlier started in 1969 in association with AICRP on Water Management and was transferred to saline scheme in 1980 during VIth Five year plan and started functioning at Agricultural College, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) to undertake research on reclamation and management of heavy textured soils of alluvial and black soil regions. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 4 (Northern plain, hot semi-arid region) and located at The centre is located at 29027’ N Latitude and 80020’ E Longitude.
- Groundwater sampling and analysis for different quality parameters were conducted for Unnao, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Raibareli, Kannauj and Kanpur Dehat district. On the basis of analysis samples were grouped into Good, marginally saline, saline, high SAR-saline, marginally alkali, alkali and highly alkali categories.
- The detailed technology for reclamation of alkali soils, which constitute a major area under salt affected soils, and its utilization in agriculture production, has been developed. The technology would essentially consist of proper bunding and leveling of the land, application of pyrites or gypsum as per requirement and by right method based on soil test, judicious use of fertilizers including zinc, growing of salt tolerant variety of paddy and wheat during kharif and rabi followed with green manuring (dhaincha) in summer. Wheat can be replaced by barley, Egyptain clover during rabi.
- Numbers of technologies of immense utility have developed from studies and it was inferred that application of RSC water passing through 15 cm phospogypsum bed proved by far superior to equivalent amount of gypsum in controlling the effect of bed quality (RSC) water on soil properties and improving productivity of paddy and wheat crop.
- Elite varieties of different important vegetable crops viz. tomato, chilli, brinzal, garlic etc. have been identified and screened out which proved tolerant to different levels of sodicity.
- Experiments concluded shows that the amount of gypsum for reclamation of sodic soil, which was hitherto recommended [at] 50 % G.R., could be reduced to half i.e. 25 % G.R. if supplemented with press mud [at] 5 t ha-1.
- The enhancement of yield of tomato, cabbage and banana can be enhanced by application of CSR-Bio growth regulator.
- Yield obtained in sodic soil with 90 kg N ha-1 supplemented with G.M. (Dhaincha) or FYM (15 t ha-1) were comparable with inorganic added through urea [at] 120 kg or 150 kg ha-1. Studies have clearly revealed usefulness of organic manuring in rice-wheat cropping system in sodic soils.
- On the basis of field study, it is found that crop rotation like rice-wheat-dhaincha, rice-Egyptian clover are better suited crops under alkali soil conditions.
- Identified suitable tree species for alkali land plantations.
- Resource Conservation Technologies are being standardized for alkali soils.
This centre was sanctioned during VIIIth Five year plan and started functioning at A.D. Agriculture College & Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu) w.e.f. January 01, 1997. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 8 (Eastern Ghats and Tamil Nadu uplands and Deccan plateau, hot semi-arid region) and located at 10045’N Latitude and 78036’E Longitude.
- Groundwater Quality Map of Tamil Nadu was prepared and distributed to stakeholders.
- Delineation and Characterization of Salt affected soils using IRS 1B LISS II Data: In Tiruchirappalli district, out of the total geographical area of 4,40,412 ha, 7,362 ha are slightly salt affected (pH 8.2 to 9.0), 10,729 ha are moderately salt affected (pH 9.0 to 9.6) and 64 ha are strongly salt affected (pH >10).
- Reclamation of sodic vertisols in conjunction with soil and water conservation practices under rainfed condition: Raised bed with 405cm/30cm size with FYM / pressmud [at]12.5 t/ha was found suitable for sunflower under rainfed conditions.
- Sodic soil Reclamation Technology using gypsum: Application of gypsum [at] 50 % GR along with green manure [at] 6.25 t ha-1 increased the grain yield of rice to a tune of 1674 to 2300 kg / ha at various locations when compared to control. The pH of soil reduced to the level of 8.3 – 8.7 and ESP to the level of 13-20 due application of gypsum from the initial level of 8.7-10.0 and 23-42, respectively.
- Sodic soil Reclamation Technology using Distillery Spent Wash (DSW): The grain yield of rice increased to the tune of 1560 to 2428 kg / ha in various locations due to application of DSW 5 lakh litres ha-1 when compared to control. The pH of the soil reduced to the level of 8.3 – 8.8 and ESP to the level of 14 – 19 % due to application of DSW from the initial level of 8.6 -10.0 and 24 -32, respectively.
- DSW to Reclaim Alkali Water: Feasibility of managing alkali water with distillery spent wash (DSW) has also been demonstrated and found effective to reclaim alkali waters. One litre of DSW in 250 litres of alkali water is sufficient to neutralize RSC of 10 meq/l and could be used to irrigate the sugarcane crop without any adverse effects.
- Evaluation of plants for sodicity tolerance:
- Crops and varieties
- The coarse grained rice variety TRY 1 and fine grained variety ADT 45 tolerates up to an ESP of 26
- Green gram variety Pusa Bold tolerates an ESP of 16.
- At higher ESP level of 36, pearlmillet cultivar UCC 17 performed better.
- Up to an ESP of 16, the crops viz., Maize (COH M4), Sunflower (CO 4), Sesame (CO 1), Bhendi (Parbhani Kranti), Cluster bean (Pusa Naubuhar) performed better.
- The threshold ESP for the sunflower variety CO4 and hybrid TCSH1 were 16.5 and 13.0, respectively.
- The ESP at 50% yield reduction for sunflower variety CO4 and hybrid TCSH1 were 37 and 34, respectively
- The threshold ESP for okra varieties were 13.5, 15.5 and 16 for hybrid No10, Arkha anamika and Parbhani kranti, respectively.
- The ESP at 50% yield reduction for okra varieties were 31, 34 and 30 for hybrid No10, Arkha anamika and Parbhani kranti, respectively.
- Threshhold ESP for cotton was fixed at 33 for varieties and 28 for hybrids
- Trees Species
- Tamarindus indica, Bambusa bamboo, Lueceana leucocephala, Acacia leaucophloea, and Azardiracta indica are suitable for agroforestry in rainfed sodic soils.
- Evolving planting techniques with amendments for raising tree crops in sodic soils under rainfed condition: i) Pit with auger hole (120 cm) was the best method of planting for establishment and growth of tree species (Neem and Tamarind) under rainfed sodic soil condition; ii) Application of amendments viz., DSW [at] 75 ml / kg soil with gypsum [at] 25 % GR for neem and DSW [at] 150 ml/ kg of soil for tamarind were found to be better for establishment and growth.
- Nutrient management for rice under sodic soil conditions: Addition of urea [at] 112.5 kg N/ha with organics like daincha or subabul or FYM or rice husk ash [at] 5 t/ha, 15 t /ha and 5 t /ha respectively resulted in higher grain yield in case of rice.
- Site Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) for rice in salt affected soils of Tamil Nadu:
- As per SSNM, the N requirement for a yield target of 6 t / ha was 162 kg/ ha without amendment and 137 kg/ ha with Gypsum and was 30 and 134 kg N ha during I and II year of DSW reclamation, respectively.
- The P requirement as per SSNM approach varied between 25 to 35 kg P2O5 ha for a yield target of 6 t/ ha.
- The K requirement varied between 66 to 76 kg K2O ha for a yield target of 6 t/ ha irrespective of the amendments.
- Integrated Farming System suitable for problem soil areas of Tamil Nadu: In comparison with a pure crop programme for 0.40 ha, the IFS programme (0.30 ha for crop and 0.10 ha for poultry and fisheries) has yielded high net returns and BC ratio of 2.36 which is 1.33 higher than the crop alone programme.
- Water quality map of Tamil Nadu from existing data base: The water quality map of Tamil Nadu was prepared in 1:250,000 scale. The results indicate that 73.2% of water samples were found to be of good quality, 21.1% moderately saline and 5.7% were saline.
- Intensive Investigations on ground water quality of Tamil Nadu:
- Tiruchirapalli district: Of the 597 water samples collected from Tiruchirapalli district, 365 (61%) are good. 90 (15%) marginally saline, 53 (8.8 %) saline, 15 (2.5 %) high SAR saline, 27 (4.5 %) marginally alkali, 41 (6.8 %) alkali and 6 (1%) highly alkali .
- Perambalur District: Among the total samples (680) collected from Perambalur district, the distribution of good, Marginally saline, saline, high SAR saline, marginally alkaline, alkaline and alkaline were 52.4,26.8, 3.2, 0.88, 10.4 and 5.88 per cent respectively.
- Ariyalur district: Among the total samples (835) collected from Ariyalur district, 67.8 % is coming under good quality, 6.35 is marginally saline, 19.9 % is marginally alkaline, 3.54 % is alkaline, and 2.04 % is saline.
- Namakkal district: Among the total samples collected from Namakkal district, 62.3 % is coming under good quality, 27.1 is marginally saline, 6.5 % is marginally alkaline, 1.9 % is alkaline, and 8.5 % is saline.
- Tanjore district: Out of the total samples collected in Tanjore district, 84.2 % is coming under good quality, 2.19 % is marginally saline, 9.3 % is marginally alkaline, 3.6 % is alkaline, 0.46 % is saline and 0.25 % high SAR saline.
- Thiruvarur district: In Thiruvarur district, 83.2 % is coming under good quality, 9.93 % is marginally saline, 3.72 % is marginally alkaline, 1.24 % is alkaline, 0.62 % high SAR saline and 1.24 % highly alkaline.
- Nagapattinam district: In Nagapattinam district, 72.6 % is characterized under good quality, 12.7 % is marginally saline, 7.8 % is saline, 2.9 % is marginally alkaline, 2.9 % is alkaline, and 4 % is high SAR saline.
- Scheduling irrigation with alkali water for sugarcane under sodic soil condition using drip irrigation: Drip irrigation with 80% pan evaporation (PE) registered significantly the highest cane yield of 102.96 and 98.84 t/ha respectively for plant and ratoon crops.
- Fertigation to sugarcane under drip irrigation using ameliorated alkali water:
- Drip irrigation to sugarcane at 80% PE with gypsum at 50% GR recorded the highest average cane yield of 104.9 t ha-1.
- Drip irrigation to sugarcane saved irrigation water up to 29.5% as compared to furrow irrigation.
- Drip irrigation with gypsum bed treated water in combination with soil application of gypsum [at] 50% GR recorded the highest average cane yield of 113.4 t ha-1
- Drip irrigation with gypsum bed treated water in combination with soil application of gypsum [at] 50% GR reduced the soil pH and ESP.
- Drip irrigation to vegetables in alkali soil using amended alkali water: The soil application of gypsum [at] 50 % GR significantly increased the yield of both Okra (12.6 % in 2009 – 10 and 12.8 % in 2010-11) and cluster bean (22.1 % in 2009 – 10 and 20.9 % in 2010-11). Among the irrigation treatments, drip irrigation of spent wash treated water recorded the highest yield in Okra and drip irrigation of gypsum bed treated water recorded highest yield in cluster bean crop.
- Conjunctive use of canal and sodic water for rice based cropping systems:
- During shortage or limited supply of canal water, conjunctive use of canal and alkali water in 1:1 cyclic mode for rice and alkali water alone for greengram or vegetables can be recommended for alkaline environment of Cauvery irrigation command area.
- For amending alkali water gypsum bed method proved to be superior.
- Continuous use of alkali water for rice and greengram or vegetables resulted in yield decline of 25% in rice and 37% in greengram and 20% in brinjal with increased ESP of 25-34.
- Greengram (Pusa bold or VBN(GG) 2) or brinjal (Co2) can be recommended as follow-up after rice with alkali water irrigation for higher profitability.
- The change in chemical properties of soil viz., pH and ESP due to use of canal + alkali water was observed to be better than use of alkali water alone for both crops.
- Integrated use of distillery effluent and fertilizer for sustaining soil health and yield of sugarcane: Application of inorganic fertilizers omitting K and 25 per cent N and P, in combination with 1.25 lakh litres ha-1 of treated distillery effluent gave higher cane yield as that of NPK combination leading to a saving of K.
Volunteer Centres (4 Nos)
Khar Land Research Station, Panvel
This centre was sanctioned during XII Five year plan and started functioning at Khar Land Research Station, Panvel under Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) as per ICAR Order NRM-1(21)/2014-SW&DF, Dated: 25-04-2014. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 19 (Western Ghats and Coastal Plain, hot humid-per humid) and located at 18.9894° N Latitude and 73.1175° E Longitude.
- Characterization of Creek/Sea water: The tide height during high ride remains up to 5.2 m. The entry of tide water through creeks and sub creeks towards land side is observed up to 3 km. Observations on soil salinity and groundwater quality from sea/ creek towards land were taken in coastal districts (Palghar, Thane, Raigad, Ratangiri and Sindhudurg) of Konkan during Nov- Dec 2014 and May 2015. The average pH, EC and Na of creek/sea water varied from 5.44 to 8.22, 1.73 to 78.75 dSm-1 and 0.994 to 580.65 meql-1, respectively, during Nov-Dec, 2014. During April-May 2015, pH, EC and Na varied from 6.49 to 8.00, 0.97 to 60.70 dSm-1 and 1.47 to 123.35 meql-1, respectively. The salinity of creek/ sea water remained very high.
- Characterization of groundwater: Total 218 groundwater samples from different locations of Palghar, Thane, Raigad, Ratangiri and Sindhudurg district during Nov-Dec 2014 and April- May 2015. It was observed that average pH and EC of groundwater ranged from 5.08 to 8.60 and 0.01 to 8.91 dSm-1, respectively. It is observed that groundwater salinity reduced with distance from creek/sea towards landside up to 10 km. Around 33.94% groundwater samples were saline (EC >4 dS/m, SAR 10 and RSC 2.5 meq/l) during post monsoon (Nov-Dec) and 45.47 % samples were during pre monsoon (April-May) period.
- Soil characterization: Soil samples were collected from Palghar, Thane, Raigad, Ratangiri and Sindhudurg district during Nov-Dec (2014).The pH and EC ranged between 3.34 to 9.24 and 0.01 to 19.73 dsm-1, respectively. On the basis of analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples, it was observed that as distance increases (0-10 km) from sea/creek EC, Na and Cl-content decreases while Ca+, Mg+ and organic carbon increases, but P and K+ does not showed much more differences during pre monsoon and post monsoon periods.
- IFS model for coastal region of Maharashtra: Integrated Farming System research with different Components such as Rice, vegetables, poultry, Horticulture, fish and vermi-compost was carried out at two locations on farmers’ fields. Yield and profitability (for 1 ha area) increased under IFS on both Koproli and Vashi locations with B:C ratio as 1.67 ( Koproli village) and 1.99 ( Vashi village), respectively. The B:C at Vashi may be due to large size of pond (56 m2) than at Koproli (20 m2) as fish is important component compared to other components.
RRS, Vytilla, Kochi
This centre was sanctioned during XII Five year plan and started functioning at Rice Res. Station, Vytilla (Kochi) under KAU, Thrissur, Kerala as per ICAR Order NRM-1(21)/2014-SW&DF, Dated: 25-04-2014. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 19 (Western Ghats and Coastal Plain, hot humid-per humid) and located at 9.9667° N Latitude and 76.3168° E Longitude.
- IFS in Pokkali Lands: Successfully developed an integrated farming system model in pokkali lands with sequential rice prawn culture and cultivation of vegetables in pokkali bunds. The cultivation is purely organic with no fertilizer and pesticides and no external inputs for paddy were used. For prawn culture, organic feed is used. Monitoring the pH and EC of the field continuously and adopting timely management practices helped to achieve a rice yield upto 2.5 t ha-1 and a prawn yield upto 0.62 t ha-1 with BC ratio of 2. Farmers of this area traditionally adopted this farming by prawn infiltration. But prawn culture is more remunerative. Most of the farmers now resort to monoculture of prawn which deteriorates the soil quality and disease infestation of prawns. By our intervention farmers are now cultivating rice followed by prawn.
- Horticulture in Pokkali Lands: In the pokkali bunds planting of coconut trees and vegetables fetched more income to the farmers. Introduced the cultivation of winter season vegetables (cauliflower and cabbage) in the pokkali bunds with mulching the soil to reduce evaporation loss from the soil to reduce the capillary rise of saline water.
RRS, PAU, Bathinda
This centre was sanctioned during XII Five year plan and started functioning at RRS, PAU, Bathinda under PAU, Ludhiana as per ICAR Order NRM-1(21)/2014-SW&DF, Dated: 25-04-2014. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 2 (Western Plains, Hot arid) and located at 30.2110° N Latitude and 74.9455° E Longitude.
- Maximum electrical conductivity (1.6-10.0 dSm-1) and residual sodium carbonate (0.0-20.6 me L-1) were reported in Talwandi Sabo Block of Bathed district.
- In Bathed district only 25 % water could be used without any possible risk of soil salinization due to their low electrical conductivity. Further, 51% water was marginal and could be used with adopting recommendations for irrigation and 24% water was not suitable for irrigation due to their higher electrical conductivity.
- Basis of RSC 68% water is safe (RSC, <2.5 meL-1), 9% water is marginal (RSC, 2.5 to 5.0 meL-1) and 23% water is unsafe for irrigation (RSC, > 5.0 meL-1) in the district.
- On the basis of both parameters (EC and RSC) only 20 percent water is good, 51 percent water is marginal and 29 percent water is unfit for irrigation.
ICAR-CIARI, Port Blair Centre (A&N Islands)
This centre was sanctioned during XII Five year plan and started functioning at ICAR-CIARI, Port Blair, A&N Islands as per ICAR Order NRM-1(21)/2014-SW&DF, Dated: 25-04-2014. The centre is situated in Agro ecological region 20 (Islands of Andaman-Nicobar, Hot humid to per humid islands) and located at 11.6234° N Latitude and 92.7265° E Longitude.
- Groundwater Quality Assessment: Assessment of ground water quality indicated seasonal variation. Out of 43 samples analyzed 16% exhibited moderate salinity and rest is good during the dry season. However, at the end of rainy season only 7% samples were exhibited moderate salinity. During the dry season the mean RSC was 0.64 (±1.59), SAR 0.84 (±0.29) and EC 1.47 (±0.44).
- Isolation and evaluation of effective microbes under saline conditions: Twenty salinity tolerant microbes have been isolated and characterized. Among the isolates Bacillus subtilis produced maximum IAA (34.9 µg/ml) and B. cereus solubilized maximum P (37.9 µg/ml), L. sphaericus produced maximum siderophore. All the isolates promoted root and shoot growth of brinjal seedlings and B. subtilis is highly significant in promoting seed germination
- Alternate land management in coastal saline environment to manage salinity: Different cropping system was evaluated in the raised beds made in the saline and waterlogged areas. The results showed that French bean-bitter gourd-bottle gourd gave high return with BC ratio of 2.0 in the beds while the surrounding land without intervention remained fallow. Fresh water fish can be successfully integrated into the crop production through raised beds technology and this helps to harvest rainwater as well.
- Vulnerability Assessment: The basic information regarding agricultural areas, crops, climate and elevation has been compiles. The vulnerability of different islands to the projected climate change and different scenarios are under study. Salinity in the coastal areas have been mapped the study will focus of increase in salinity due to sea level rise.
PROJECT COORDINATING UNIT, ICAR-CSSRI, KARNAL
The Project Coordinating Unit is stationed at ICAR-CSSRI, Karnal and it is involved in research activities besides the coordination work. It is located in Agro-ecological region 4 (Northern Plain, hot semi-arid) at latitude and longitude as 29.7014° N, 76.9789° E.
- National guidelines for use of saline and alkali groundwater for irrigation were prepared for different agro-ecological zones of the country. These site-specific guidelines consider soil type, rainfall and salt tolerance of crops, in addition to the major ion chemistry of water and thus have widely replaced the too conservative guidelines in vogue.
- The information generated on the crop tolerance to the use of saline waters in different agro-climatic zone of India was compiled, modelled and salt tolerance table for cereals, oil seeds, pulses and vegetable crops prepared.
- Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) known as Isabgol, a medicinal crop of global demand for its laxative value is a very promising crop for cultivation under dry land salinity without any significant yield reduction with saline water of EC 12 dS/m. Isabgol can be successfully grown with 2 number of saline water irrigations; first irrigation after dry seeding and second irrigation after 21 days of sowing.
- Evaluated tree species for planting in highly calcareous saline soils with saline irrigation. The preferred choice of tree species for these conditions should be Tamarix articulate, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Acacia tortilis and Casia siamea.
- In calcareous saline soils, established the agri-horticultural system suited to bio-saline agriculture and the concluded that karonda, bael and aonla could be grown under saline irrigation of up to 12-14 dS/m.
- Technology to use domestic and industrial wastewaters based on the following components have been developed: i) Reuse of water for crop cultivation: A package has been developed wherein various low cost strategies have been given to avoid contamination of the food chain; ii) Reuse for non-food chain crops included irrigation for flowers, aromatic and forest plants; iii) For reuse in plantation for disposal, the potential of trees for evapo-transpiration has been assessed.
|Place of implementation||Implementing Agency||Background||Details of the initiative/ project||Impact||Key Takeaways||Contact name of the officer who can be contacted||Key words and sectors|
|1. Low cost recharge technology for poor quality groundwater areas|
|Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan||AICRP, Agra centre||· Agra – Bharatpur in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan are endowed with poor quality groundwater aquifers. Shallow aquifers are relatively more saline (10-15 dS/m) compared to deeper aquifers (2-6 dS/m).
· Resource poor farmers of the region who cannot afford deeper bore well are compelled to use saline groundwater available at shallow aquifers to give 1-2 life saving irrigation (s) to mustard. Such irrigations adversely affect yield and deteriorate quality of soils.
|The “low cost technology is developed by the centre for dilution of poor quality ground water in aquifer through rain water recharge. It is individual farmer based technology. The groundwater recharge helps to improve availability and quality of groundwater.||· The salinity of the ground water is reduced to less than 4-8 dS/m in most cases but, eventually reaches to its original value at time of 3rd or 4th irrigation.
· The salinity (ECiw) of well water at Ist irrigation is very low as compared to initial water salinity of the bore well. The first irrigation with this good quality water helps to increase crop yield.
· Grain yield of mustard and wheat increased by 6.3 to 18.3% as compared to without recharge water.
· Technology has been tested on 8 farmer’s fields. The diluted ground water is used to irrigate rabi crops such as mustard / wheat.
|Diluting shallow saline ground water through artificial recharge in poor quality groundwater areas||Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
Dr R.B. Singh
OIC, AICRp ASA&USW, Agra
|Saline water, Artificial recharge
|2. Skimming well Technology for coastal areas:|
|Andhra Pradesh||AICRP, Bapatla Centre,||· Skimming well technology is designed with intention to extract/ skim freshwater layer floating over saline water aquifer.
· This is generally designed for irrigation or drinking water purpose.
· Rate of pumping of groundwater is a crucial decision, because unregulated pumping often results in up-coning phenomena, ultimately increasing salinity of pumped groundwater.
· Regulated pumping is carefully implemented such that relatively less saline water is skimmed from saline water aquifer beneath the fresh water layer in the coastal aquifer.
Technology for efficient use of fresh water floating over saline ground water in coastal sands (Skimming well Technology) comprises installation radial corrugated perforated pipes and sump at centre for skimming of fresh water without disturbing underlain saline groundwater in coastal areas.
|· After installation of skimming wells in the area, it was observed that the water table depth varied from 1.39 to 2.04 m at Bapatla and surrounding coastal areas.
· Electrical conductivity (EC) of skimmed water is found to be 0.16 to 0.54 dS m-1.
· The studies revealed that the improved fresh water skimming techniques have promising future prospects for sustaining crop production and potable water supply along the coastal belts.
·Skimming wells at 92 locations were installed including six drinking water wells covering an area of 198 ha in twenty five villages in Prakasam, Guntur and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh.
|Improved fresh water skimming technique is promising. The skimmed water is used for drinking and irrigation purpose.
|Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
Dr. Prasuna Rani
|Skimming wells, coastal aquifers, saline ground water|
|3. DSR on laser leveled fields in TBP command|
|Tungabhadra command area of Karnataka
|AICRP, Gangawati centre||· Tungbhadra command area in Karnataka is mainly associated with soil salinity, soil erosion and shortage of irrigation water, particularly during Kharif season. Soil moisture cannot be distributed uniformly due improper leveling.||· “Laser land leveling is used for enhancing water productivity in Tungabhadra command area”
· Laser Land Leveler is used for leveling of land and DSR (Direct Seeded Rice) is adopted on laser leveled fields.
|· 20–25 % irrigation water saved in case of DSR on laser leveled land compared to transplanted rice (PTR) on traditionally leveled land.
· Higher Paddy yield (87.5 q/ha) was recorded under PTR in laser leveled land followed by DSR on laser leveled land (78.75 q/ha).
· Soil erosion is reduced and soil moisture distribution was uniform over entire DSR laser leveled land.
|If DSR on laser leveled land is adopted by farmers in head reach of command, there would be proper distribution of irrigation water and fertilizer and it may help to reduce problems of waterlogging and secondary salinization especially at the tail end of the command
Reduction in soil compaction, reduced wheel tracks during machine harvesting which in turn help easy land preparation and sowing operations in the next season
Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
Secondary salinization, DSR on laser leveled fields.
|4 Controlled drainage|
|Tungabhadra command area of Karnataka
|AICRP, Gangawati centre||· Tungbhadra command area in Karnataka is mainly associated with soil salinity, soil erosion and shortage of irrigation water, particularly during Kharif season.||
In this subsurface drainage system, drainage water volume is controlled.
|· The subsurface drainage is provided with device to maintain watertable, reduce drainage volume and prevent loss of nitrogen fertilizer.||Controlled drainage is saving irrigation water and saving nitrogen fertilizer.||Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
|Controlled drainage, waterlogged saline Vertisols,
|5. Reclamation of sodic soils using Distillery Spent Wash in Tamil Nadu|
|Sodic soil areas of Tamil Nadu
|AICRP, Tiruchirappalli centre||·The gypsum requirement in the area was 9.5 t / ha (50 % GR) which cost around Rs. 20,000.
·To reduce this reclamation cost, Distillery Spent Wash (DSW) can be used with gypsum (DSW).
·DSW for reclamation is available free of cost.
Application DSW on sodic soils for its reclamation [at] 1.25 lakh lit/ ha
|· The soil was highly sodic and sandy clay loam in texture. The initial soil pH, EC and ESP was 11.2, 1.7 and 42, respectively.
· After reclamation with DSW, the post harvest soil pH was reduced to 8.46 and ESP was 17.2.
· The yield obtained in control plot was 1.5 t ha-1 whereas in DSW reclaimed field, the grain yield was 4.5 t ha-1
|· DSW can substitute the 50% of N and 100% of K fertilizer
· Farmers observed good crop growth in DSW treated fields.
Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
Dr. P. Balasubramaniam
|Distillery Spent Wash, Sodic soil reclamation|
|6. Integrated Farming System (IFS) on salt affected soil areas of Tamil Nadu|
|Salt affected soils areas of Tamil Nadu
|ICRP, Tiruchirappalli centre,||· Soil and groundwater in the area are not good.
· Farmer is getting normal rice yield during Kharif season by utilizing the canal water. But he could not cultivate any second crop due to poor quality groundwater (Highly sodic RSC 6.8; SAR 9.0; EC 1.8).
· Integrated Farming System (IFS) including poultry and fisheries with the crop component can help to improve water and land productivity by including crop, fisheries and livestock.
|· The farmer is getting the income throughout the year.
· He is effectively utilizing the resource from his farm.
· Now he is getting the additional income of Rs. 75,000 (net profit) per year and smoothly running his family.
|· Cost per unit: Rs. 52,000 per year including cost on capital investment, and Interest on capital.
· B: C ratio 1.44
Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
Dr. P. Balasubramaniam
Poultry, Highly sodic soil
|7. Rice-prawn integration on Pokkali fields in Kerala|
|Acid saline Pokkali lands in coastal areas of Kerala||AICRP, Centre Vyttila||· In the coastal area of Kerala, acid saline soils are dominated, which has very poor productivity and profitability of rice crop.
· The farmer has been advised to integrated Pokkali rice with prawn cultivation.
· Rice-prawn integration-success story of pokkali farmer
Farmer applies lime at the time of field preparation.
· Seeds of Pokkali sown on the ridges and after one month when the conditions become favourable, The ridges are dismantled and the seedling are distributed evenly in the field using spade.
· The rice crop is grown exclusively without any fertilizers and pesticides.
· The only intercultural operation is weeding.
· The threats for this crop are flash floods and increase in salinity during low rainfall periods during cropping season.
|· Analysis of soil samples before and after prawn cultivation showed change in chemical soil properties
· There was an increase in all chemical parameters except sulphur content after the cultivation of prawn.
· Farmer got an average yield of 2-3 t for rice and 400 kg/ha for prawn without applying chemical fertilizer and organic manure.
· Farmer also got additional income from the coconut palm and the vegetables.
|· The B:C ratios for rice, prawn and rice-prawn integration system were 1.3, 3.5 and 2.02 respectively.
· He gets a profit of Rs 55,850/acre per year from his farm.
Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
|8. Land shaping for controlling waterlogging and salinity in A & N islands|
|saline and waterlogged soils of Island ecosystem||AICRP, Centre Port Blair||· The coastal areas of Andmans suffer from the twin problem of salinity and waterlogging.
· Sea water inundation during high tide makes life and livelihood very difficult as in the case of Padmaspahad village of South Andaman.
· Alternate land management system for waterlogged and saline soils
· Water from the pond was drained to leach salts and from second year onwards rainwater has been harvested and stored.
|· Salinity reduced to less than 1.5 dSm-1 from the initial value of 4.6 dSm-1 and the pH improved to 6.4 with in the one year.
· Polyculture of Indian Major Carps was practised in the pond with the production of 520 kg/year.
· Banana cultivation gave a net return of Rs. 18,000/- and veetable Rs.10,000 in one year after meeting home consumption of farmer.
|· Cost (Rs.) 45,000-60,000 /2000 m2 area (one unit as per the landscape).
· B:C ratio of 1.8 in the first year and 2.0 – 2.5 from second year onwards.
|Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
Dr. A. Velumurugan
|Land sahping saline waterlogged coastal areas of A &N isalnds|
|9. IFS for coastal waterlogged area of Konkan|
|saline and waterlogged soils of Konkan||AICRP on ASA&USW, Panvel||· The coastal areas of Maharashtra suffer from the twin problem of salinity and waterlogging.
IFS controls waterlogging. It improves water and land productivity.
|· IFS components were fish pond, paddy field, vegetables, poultry, vermin-compost, ornamental fish raring and horticultural crops.||· Total yield and profitability for 1 hectare area with IFS components revealed B:C ratio 1.99 at vashi farm location||Project Coordinator, AICRP, Karnal
Dr KD Patil
|IFS for coastal waterlogged area of Konkan|
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SASUSW 2021
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SASUSW 2019-2020
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SAS&USW 2019
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SASUSW 2016-2018
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SAS&USW 2006-2008
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SAS&USW 2008-2010
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SAS&USW 2010-2012
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SAS&USW 2012-2014
- Biennial Report of AICRP on SAS&USW 2014-2016
- Groundwater Quality for Irrigation in India
- Groundwater Quality –Andhra Pradesh-Bapatla Centre
- Management of SAS & water-Bapatla Centre
- SSD for waterlogged saline soils-Bapatla Centre
- Technologies for Skimming of fresh water in coastal areas-Bapatla Centre
- Groundwater Quality Management in Karnataka-Gangawati Centre
- In Situ Rainwater Harvesting for saline & rainfed sodic soils-Gangawati Centre
- VISION 2030-Bapatla Centre
- SSD for TBP Command-Gangawati Centre
- Groundwater Quality of Rohtak District-Hisar Centre
- Vegetable Cultivation with Poor Quality Water-Hisar Centre
- Groundwater Quality of Mahendragarh district-Hisar Centre
- Sodic Vertisols Management-Indore Centre
- Coastal Saline Soils of Maharashtra-Panvel Centre
- Ground water quality Perambalur and Ariyalur (TN)- Trichy Centre
- Distillery waste water in Agriculture-Trichy Centre
Maps of Groundwater Quality and Soil Salinity
- Groundwater Quality of India-by CSSRI, Karnal
- Groundwater Quality of AP- Bapatla Centre
- Groundwater Quality Maps for Rajastan Districts-Bikaner Centre
- Groundwater Quality Map Bellary district- Gangawati Centre
- Groundwater Quality map of Davanagere district-Gangawati Centre
- Groundwater Quality Map of Dharwad Taluk-Gangawati Centre
- Groundwater Quality of Gadag district-Gangawati Centre
- Groundwater Quaity Map of Namakkal district -Trichy Centre
- Groundwater Quality Map of Thanjavur district-Trichy Centre
- Groundwater Quality Map-Ariyalur district-Trichy Centre
- Perambalur district Map, TN
- Soil Salinity Map of Koppal district-Gangawati Centre
|Dr. M. J. Kaledhonkar
All India Coordinated Research Project
Management of Salt Affected Soils and Use of Saline Water in Agriculture
(AICRP on SAS&USW)
ICAR-CSSRI, Kachhwa road, Karnal 132 001 (Haryana)
Mobile: 8975584317, 9404926824 Fax: 0184-2290480
Addresses and Telephone Directory of AICRP on SAS&USW Scientists
|Sr. No.||Name of Scientist||Designation||Telephone
|Fax (Office)||Mobile/ Residential||Email ID|
|I||R.B.S.College, Bichpuri, Agra -238105 (Uttar Pradesh)|
|1.||Dr R.B. Singh||Soil Chemist||0562-
|2.||Dr S.K. Chauhan||Jr Agronomist||09456818054||coolyes40[at]yahoo[dot]com|
|II||Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla-522101 (Andhra Pradesh)|
|1.||Dr. P. Prasuna Rani||Principal Scientist (SS) & Head||08643-
|2.||Smt.K.Anny Mrudhula||Scientist (Agronomy)||08019166783||anny.mrudhula1[at]gmail[dot]com|
|4.||Dr.Y.Sudha Rani||Scientist (SS)||09989872921||sudhayarramasu[at]gmail[dot]com|
|5.||Dr.P.Mohana Rao||Scientist (SS)||09493744021||mohanpuli007[at]gmail[dot]com|
|III||Rajasthan Agricultural University, Beechwal, Bikaner-334006 (Rajasthan)|
|1.||Dr SR Yadav||Chief Scientist||0151-2250870 (ZDR)
0151-2251282 (Dean, COA)
|2.||Er. A.K. Singh||Asstt. Prof. (Ag. Engg.)||09460386292||ashok.rau_d1[at]yahoo[dot]com|
|IV||Gangawati (AICRP – SAS&USW, Agricultural Research Station, Kanakagiri Road, GANGAVATHI – 583 227. Karnataka|
|1.||Dr. Vishwanath Jowkin||Principal Scientist & Head||
|2.||Er. Karegoudar A.V.||Scientist (Dr. Engg)||09741069416||avkaregoudar12[at]gmail[dot]com|
|3.||Dr. Ananad S.R.||Scientist (Agron.)||09986735146||anuagron80[at]gmail[dot]com|
|4.||Er. Rajkumar R.H.||Scientist (SWE)||07483155656||halidoddiraju[at]gmail[dot]com|
|V||Deptt. of Soil Science, CCS HAU, Hisar – 125004 (Haryana)|
|2.||Dr. Ramparkash||Soil Chemist||09215901617||ramsansanwal[at]gmail[dot]com|
|VI||College of Agriculture, Indore 452001 (Madhya Pradesh) Email – office – sasrvskvv[at]gmail[dot]com|
|1.||Dr. U.R. Khandkar||Principal Scientist & OIC||
|2.||Er. R.K. Sharma||Senior Scientist (Soil & Water Engg.)||09893130591||rajesh1953_sharma[at]rediffmail[dot]com|
|3.||Dr (Mrs) SPK Unni||Senior Scientist (Soils)||09893004848||sasrvskvv[at]gmail[dot]com|
|4.||Shri B.B. Parmar||Senior Scientist
|VII||Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur – 208 002 (Uttar Pradesh)|
|1.||Dr. Ravendra Kumar||Soil Chemist||
|2.||Dr. Devendra Singh||Soil Physicist||9450136063||dsyadu[at]gmail[dot]com|
|3.||Dr. S.N. Pandey||Asstt. Agronomist||9839033183||snpandeycsak[at]gmail[dot]com|
|4.||Dr. Vinod Kumar||Asstt. Soil Survey Officer||9838109886||fathervinod[at]gmail[dot]com|
|VIII||Anbhil Dhharmalingam Agricultural College & Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Navalur Kuttapattu, Tiruchirappalli – 620 009, (Tamil Nadu)
|1.||Dr. P. Balasubramaniam||Professor and Head and OIC (Soil Science)||
|2.||Dr. M. Baskar||Assistant professor (SS&AC)||09443784794||mbaskar_uma[at]rediffmail[dot]com|
|3.||Dr. A. Alagesan||Assistant professor (Agronomy)||08870370588||alagesan2000[at]gmail[dot]com|
|4.||Dr. M. Selvamurugan||Assistant professor (ENS)||09597076491||muruganens[at]gmail[dot]com|
|IX||PAU Regional Station, Dabwali Road, Bathinda-151001 (Punjab)|
|1.||Dr. B. K. Yadav||Nodal Officer||0164-
|2.||Dr. Sudhir Thaman||Asstt. Agril. Engineer||09465897562||sudhirthaman[at]pau[dot]edu|
|X||Khar Land Research Station, Panvel- 410206 (Maharashtra)|
|1.||Dr. S. B. Dodake||Nodal Officer||0222-7452775||09423296274||Suresh_dodake64[at]rediffmail[dot]com
|XI||ICAR-CIARI, Port Blair – 744101 (A&N Islands)|
|1.||Dr. A. Velmurugan||Nodal Officer||09933270521||Vels_21[at]yahoo[dot]com|
|XII||Kerala Agricultural University, Rice Research Station, Vytilla, 682028-( Kerala)|
|1.||Dr. A.K. Sreelatha||Nodal Officer||09446328761||rrsvyttila[at]kau[dot]in|
|XIII||Project Coordinating Unit, ICAR-CSSRI, Karnal- 132001 (Haryana)|
|1.||Dr. M.J. Kaledhonkar||Project Coordinator||0184-2292730||
|2.||Dr. R.L. Meena||Principal Scientist||0184-2209337||09466623375
|3.||Dr. B.L. Meena||Scientist||0184-209348||09416143606||BL.Meena[at]icar[dot]gov[dot]in|
|4.||Dr. Ram Kishor Fagodiya||Scientist||0184-2209413||09205618355||Ram.Fagodiya[at]icar[dot]gov[dot]in|