- Gypsum for reclamation of sodic soil
Following diagnostic procedures, application of 10-15 tons gypsum per ha is applied followed by mixing of surface (10 cm) soil. Before gypsum is applied, field leveled, bunded, irrigation water is applied to leach down the salts. About 2.07 Mha sodic soils have been reclaimed using gypsum application technology. The reclaimed area contributes around 16.60 million tonnes of food grains to the National pool. Farmers obtained 4 tonnes/hectare rice and 2 tonnes/hectare wheat yield from reclaimed alkali land right from the first year of the reclamation, which increased to 5 and 3 tonnes/hectare during 3rd year onwards, respectively with an increment cost of Rs. 76500/ha. The agricultural income generated from the reclaimed soil is Rs. 25320 crores. This also provides an employment opportunity to about 28 crore man days annually. Its Net Present Worth estimated to be Rs. 2, 80,000/ha, Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 2.47 and Internal Rate of Return of 67% of the technology. The technology improved soil health, increased resource use efficiency, raised farm income, reduced poverty, minimized inequity, reduced flood hazards and water logging, recharge groundwater and improve quality of overall environment.
- Gypsum bed technology for poor quality water management
About 25% of the groundwater resources used for irrigation in India are either saline or brackish or both. In states like Rajasthan and Haryana, 84% and 62%, respectively of the groundwater are of poor quality. Irrigation water standards used in the past have been too conservative for the monsoonal climate of the country. The institute has developed new techniques for sustainable use of poor quality waters for agriculture. ICAR-CSSRI has prepared and published water quality map of the country. The poor quality water management technology provides sustainability and high yields compared to rainfed agriculture, helps to control water logging and soil salinization. Number of amendments and by-products such as gypsum, pyrites, distillery spent wash and press mud identified. Gypsum bed technology for location specific situations has been developed. The adoption of new crop and water management strategies will go a long way in augmenting dwindling usable water supplies for agriculture. Thereby, the challenge to the irrigation sector to produce more food by converting more of diverted water into food would possibly be met.
- Sub surface Drainage Technology
Sub surface drainage (SSD) is an effective technology for amelioration of waterlogged saline irrigated lands in India. The system consists of perforated corrugated PVC pipes, covered with synthetic filter, installed mechanically at a design spacing and depth below soil surface to control water table depth and drain excess water and salts out of area by gravity or pumping from an open well called sump. The depth and spacing of drainage system are governed by rainfall, irrigation, hydro-geology, texture and salinity of soil and outfall conditions in the affected area. The technology developed by ICAR-CSSRI during 1980s initially for Haryana has been widely adopted and replicated in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. About 70,000 ha waterlogged saline soils have been reclaimed in different states of India through subsurface drainage technology. SSD has resulted in 25-100% improvement in cropping intensity and significant enhancement in crop yields (upto 45% in paddy, 111% in wheat and 215% in cotton). ICAR-CSSRI is involved in most of these projects in a collaborative/consultancy mode for monitoring and evaluation, in particular in Haryana, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat. The cost of intervention and output per unit area is Rs. 74000/ha for medium to light textured soils with 67 m spacing & Rs. 1,15,000/ha for heavy textured soils with 30 m spacing. Due to notable increase in crop yields, the technology results in 3 fold increase in farmer’s income. The reclaimed area contributes about 5.6 lakh tonnes of food grains to the National pool and generates an income of Rs. 860 Crore annually.
- Auger hole technology for alternate land use system
An auger hole technology for raising forest and fruit tree plantation in salt-affected soils with sub-surface hardpan has been developed and standardized. By adopting this technology, state forest departments have successfully raised tree plantations on salt-affected village community lands, Govt. lands, adjoining roads, railway lines and canals etc. Pit cum auger hole technology is developed to raise fruit trees like aonla (Emblica officinalis), karaunda (Carissa Carandus) and guava (Psydium guajava) in soils having pH2 10.00 and above, where nothing is possible to grow. After one rotation of trees and grasses, the soils get reclaimed to such an extent that the Panchayats have started giving these lands on rent to generate regular income for the overall development of the village. Different agro-forestry models have also been developed, which have shown a B: C ratio of 1.6. Silvi-pastoral model for bio-reclamation of sodic soil (pH2 > 10) has been developed for production of fuel wood, fodder, pods and honey besides reducing runoff volume, increasing infiltration, reducing soil alkalinity and improving soil fertility.
- Bio-drainage technology
Bio-drainage removes excess soil-water through transpiration by trees. It is an option to prevent the development of waterlogged and saline soils especially in areas having no possibility of disposing saline drainage effluent. There are large areas with water stagnation due to seepage from higher elevation, surface disposal of urban and industrial effluents and floods during rains where conventional system of dewatering through pumping and surface drainage is not possible. Bio-drainage lowers the water table and minimizes salt accumulation in the root zone. It is an eco-friendly low cost technology, which can easily be adopted by the farmers because it does not require skilled labour. It generates revenue for farmers from the sale of wood besides promoting the area under forests. The technology does not have the problem of disposal of drainage effluent. It can be adopted along with the conventional subsurface drainage to reduce the drainage effluents.
- Gypsum for reclamation of sodic soil
- Farmer based recharge structure
Individual farmer based groundwater recharge structures have been developed and implemented at 52 sites in farmers’ fields in Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat during 2008- 2011. The structures involve passing of excess rain and canal water under gravity through a bore well to subsurface sandy zones coupled to a recharge filter consisting of layers of coarse sand, small gravel and boulders in a small brick masonry chamber. The recharge structures can be installed at any low lying location prone to surface water flooding. Being individual farmer oriented and of small size, these structures have relatively better chances of success due to ease of cleaning the clogged recharge filters by farmers themselves. Based on the quality and impact of this work, ICARCSSRI was bestowed with Groundwater Augmentation Award of MoWR (GoI) during 2011. The estimated cost for 9 inch diameter bore of 100 feet is Rs. 1-1.5 lakh. Water source Bore hole (45 cm f) Round gravel (1.5- 2.0 cm f) G.L. 1.8 m 1.65 m
- Farmer based recharge structure
- Multi-enterprise agriculture model for reclaimed alkali soils
A multi-enterprise model evaluated for sustaining livelihood on reclaimed saline soils in small and marginal land. It is developed for reclaimed sodic land for crop diversification and to increase resource use efficiency of water, nutrients and energy besides providing regular income, employment and livelihood to farmers owning small farm holdings. For sustaining livelihood on reclaimed saline soils in small and marginal land holdings, a multi-enterprise model is being evaluated on 5 ha area. The model provides net annual income of Rs. 2.65 lakh, out of which half of the net income comes from crop components and remaining half from the subsidiary components. If scaled on daily basis, the model provides a total gross income of Rs. 400-700 and net income of Rs. 250-500 can be generated from about 1.0 hectare land area when fisheries, dairy, horticulture, poultry, duckery and mushroom cultivation are integrated and byproducts of these enterprises are recycled within the system. Cultivation of vegetables on the dykes of the fish pond yielded about Rs. 100-400/week throughout the year. The model revealed that animal dung from the dairy component can be used as feed for fish, to generate biogas and electricity and to make compost to practice organic agriculture. Biogas produced (2 m3 per day) in the Model is adequate enough to full fill energy requirements of Farmer’s family. The synergy-based integration of multiple components is energy efficient, as the model conserves about 11% energy due to net reduction in input energy as compared to conventional rice-wheat system. The model is closely integrated with domestic activities, so the labour requirement is minimum. Recycling of resources in the farm help restore soil health and quality.
- Bio growth enhancer (CSR-BIO)
It is a low cost multiplication technology of salt tolerant bio-growth enhancers (CSR-BIO) for increasing productivity of agri-horti crops in normal and sodic soils. The technology is developed to produce microbial consortia of beneficial microbes which have universal applicability, higher shelf-life and lower cost of production. The consortium of microbes enhances the growth, productivity, nutrient mobilization and support the establishment of plantlets. Due to its growth enhancing traits serves as a promoter of growth for crops grown in sodic soils as well as normal soils. The low cost, bio-degradable dynamic media support the growth by increasing the photosynthetic and bio-chemical activity of the leaves. It is eco-friendly cost effective and highly economical. The technology of CSR Bio has spread in 10,800 ha of land covering 7 states, adopted by about 18,400 farmers. The estimated increase in yield was reported by an average of 19.75% over the crops grown (15% yield increase in paddy, wheat, tomato, capsicum, okra, mango and guava, 24% increase in ixora, banana, jasmine and greenhouse tomato, 22% in chili and garlic, 18% yield increase in gladiolus and potato).The additional employment generated due to CSR-BIO is 86,400 man-days. The additional income generation from the technology at the National level is Rs. 15 crores. The CSR-BIO has been commercialized with license to the industrial units viz. M/S Krishicare Bioinputs, Tamil Nadu, M/S Jai Visions Agri-Tech, Ghaziabad, U.P., M/S Alwin Industries, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and M/S Khandelwal Biofertilizers, Kolhapur, Maharashtra for its multiplication and these industrial unit has been producing in liquid as well as solid medium and till date more than 40 tones has been produced and marketed by the industrial units. The bio-stimulant acts as a nutrient mobilizer, soil vitalizer, plant protectant against soil born diseases and growth enhancer for crops grown in normal and salt-affected soils. It prevents environmental pollution caused due to indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides and creates profitable livelihood security to poor farmers owning sodic and marginal lands.
- Technology with reduced gypsum and salt tolerant varieties
The field experiments were initiated to develop low cost technologies for the resource poor farmers by integration of gypsum and salt tolerant varieties of rice and wheat cropping system. The grain yield of rice and wheat under 25 % plus salt tolerant varieties was at par with 50 GR plus normal cultivars. The cost of technology is likely to be Rs.40, 000/- per ha. The investment on gypsum would be reduced to half (25% GR) when salt tolerant varieties were grown instead of locally available high yielding varieties. The B:C ratio of 1.7 was recorded in 25 GR with salt tolerant varieties of rice and wheat. Time frame for the replacement of salt tolerant varieties with normal high yielding varieties was also worked out and it was established that salt tolerant varieties of rice can be replaced after 4 years. For wheat the replacement of salt tolerant varieties could be after 3 years.
- Multi-enterprise agriculture model for reclaimed alkali soils
- Pond based farming system technology in waterlogged sodic soils
About 0.35 million ha sodic lands suffer from shallow water table conditions in Sharda Sahayak Canal Command and are not suitable for cultivation even after conventional method of gypsum based reclamation. This has led to diminishing land and water productivity and loss of livelihood for the farm families in this command. Seepage from the canal is one of the main reasons for development of waterlogged sodic soils on a large scale in the canal command. To tackle such a situation, and to harness the productivity potential of the seepage water in the canal command area, a land reclamation model for 1 ha based on the concept of physical land reclamation and pond based integrated farming system has been developed at village Kashrawan, Raebareily district. The basic concept of utilizing the bottom soil whose pH was less than 9.0 for crop cultivation was adopted and therefore while digging the pond the top soil was sent to bottom and bottom soil to top. The model comprised of 0.40 ha fish pond up to 1.75 m depth, 0.2 ha cereal crop, 0.15 ha fruit crop, 0.10 ha for vegetable and 0.10 ha for forage crops. The excavated soil was spread over the 0.6 ha land so that field can be raised at least 2 m from the water table. Through intervention of above l land modification technique the productivity of the land and water increased many folds. On seeing the success of the 2 farmers, 10 more farmers have expressed their readiness to take up the technology with help of bank finance. The government of Uttar Pradesh has also requested the scientists to take up large scale demonstration of this technology for which it would provide financial support.
- Raised and sunken bed technology in waterlogged sodic soils
Since majority of sodic lands in U.P. are with resource poor medium to small land holders. Therefore, for them a system of raised and sunken bed was evolved using land modification technique in Sarda Sahayak canal command area. In raised and sunken bed system the area is divided into number of strips of desired width. Raised and sunken beds are constructed alternatively by digging soil from one strip and putting it on the other. A minimum width of raised bed was taken as 2.0 m and the height of sunken bed was 1.0 m above ground surface. The average depth of sunken bed was 0.50 m below ground surface and side slope was 1:1. Vegetable crops like tomato, brinjal, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, ridge gourd, sponge gourd, okra, chilly, tinda, pumpkin, cucumber, etc, were grown on the beds during kharif, rabi and summer seasons. Tissue culture banana plantlets were taken on the raised beds. The entire water requirement of the banana plants was met from the water from sunken beds and also through seepage. An average of 22.5 kg of banana was obtained from 140 plants taken on two beds. Deep water rice and water chestnut was cultivated in the sunken beds. The model will be helpful in minimizing the negative impact of the seepage water on ecological system of the canal command areas.
- Cotton-pulse intercropping on moderately saline Vertisols
Salt-affected Vertisols (Black cotton soils) cover an area of approximately 0.80 million hectares in the country, of which 0.12 million hectares are estimated to occur in Gujarat. Due to high clay content and other physic-chemical properties, soils are adversely affected even at low salt concentration and exchangeable sodium contents. Restoring the productivity of these lands, once they become salinized will be much more difficult as compared to alluvial sandy loam soils of Indo-Gangetic Plains. Farmers of the Bara tract in Amod, Vagra and Jambusar talukas and other parts of the state, who take cotton as rainfed mono-crop, do face crop losses due to salinity development at later stages of crop growth. Under such situations, intercropping with pulses provides some remuneration to farmer in the event of failure of cotton. The system would fetch about 16000/- per hectare from cotton and further the pulses due to their nitrogen fixing ability enrich the soils with nitrogen. Cotton as well as pulses can be taken as rain fed crops, providing saline water irrigation, if available further boosts the crop yields. Use of saline water in cotton has been proved beneficial on saline black soils. Because of pulse crop, application of soil nitrogen can be minimized and thus reduce the input costs. The farmers in the Bara tract area particularly in Vagra and Amod talukas have been adopting the cotton intercropped with pulse technology for maximizing the production. This technology while enhancing on farm income and helps in enrichment of soil nitrogen because of pulse crop introduction.
- Dill (Anethum graveolens) on saline Vertisols
Dill (Anethum graveolens), a non-conventional seed spice crop has been identified as potential crop for cultivation on saline black soils having salinity up to 6 dS m-1 in rabi season with the residual soil moisture. It has multiple uses viz., pot herb, leafy vegetable, seeds used as condiments and seed oil for aromatic and medicinal purposes. The herb contains Vitamin-C as high as 121.4 mg/100g. The oil of dill seeds and its emulsion in water (Dill water) are considered to be aromatic, carminative and effective in colic pains and possesses anti-pyretic and anti-helmenthic properties. The crop gives fairly good yield on saline black soils having salinity of 4-6 dS m-1. The crop responds well to saline water irrigation. Three critical stages for saline water irrigation have been noticed ie., vegetative, flowering and seed formation stage. A substantial increase in yield can be obtained by using saline ground water in conjunction with best available surface water. Under saline water irrigation, crop would yield net returns of Rs. 16500/- ha-1 with Rs. 6000/- per hectare as cost of cultivation. The benefit: cost ratio works out to be 2.75. Non-conventional crop like dill can be grown using residual moisture resulting in 2.6 q/ha seed yield with net returns of Rs. 8000/-. This crop forms an ideal option for the state in general and the region in particular, which by and large faces water scarcity problems. This crop thus would help farmers of the region to go for the second crop in rabi season on lands, which hitherto remain fallow due to water and salinity constraints. Thus dill crop can be taken up using residual moisture and/or with saline ground water. The green harvest can be used as leafy vegetable, an additional source of income.
- Salvadora persica on highly saline Vertisols
Salvadora persica L. (Meswak), a facultative halophyte which is a potential source for seed oil has been identified as a predominant species in highly saline habitats of coastal and inland black soils (ECe >30 dS/m). This species is a medicinal plant of great value and its bark contains resins and an alkaloid called Salvadoricine. The seeds are good source of non-edible oil rich in lauric (C12) and myrestic (C14) fatty acids having immense applications in soap and detergent industries. This species gives economic returns for the highly saline black soils with salinity values up to 50 dS m-1 , also provides eco-restoration through environmental greening and thus forms a niche for highly saline black soils. Planting of Salvadora persica would fetch about Rs. 7000/- per hectare. This species was found to grow and yield well on saline black soils having salinity up to 65 dS m-1 . Based on the studies conducted, the National bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Mumbai in association with the Station has developed a bankable model scheme for cultivation of Salvadora persica on salt-affected black soils for the restoration of highly saline soils through the project sponsored by NABARD. It is adopted by the farmers, NGOs and Govt. Institutions like Gujarat State Land Development Corporation (GSLDC) on a large scale in Gujarat. This species is useful in regreening of highly saline black soils that cannot be put under arable farming. Reduction in salinity by 4th year onwards that enables to take up intercropping with less tolerant crops/forages. Apart from this, the species provide a dwelling place for birds and enhances the environmental greening.
- Forage grasses on saline Vertisols
Cultivation of forage grasses, Dichanthium annulatum and Leptochloa fusca in a ridge-furrow planting system with 50 cm high ridge and 1 m between midpoints of two successive ridges was found ideal in saline black soils having salinity up to 10 dS m-1 . For maximizing forage production, Dichanthium on ridges and Leptochloa in furrows form ideal proposition. Nitrogen @ 45 kg ha-1 (in the form of urea) at the time of rooted slip planting boosts forage production and improves forage quality traits. Dichanthium has been found most suitable for saline black soils, as it possessed well-defined salt compartmentation, wherein the roots act as potential sinks for ions like sodium and chloride, making the shoot portions relatively salt free. Dichanthium is having both well defined salt exclusion mechanism and osmotic adjustment Paddy-cum fish(kharif) & low water requiring crops (Rabi) Fish (kharif) + harvested rain water Vegetables round the year which makes it salt tolerant. Leptochloa fusca also gave maximum forage yield. Furrow method of planting is suitable for cultivation of this grass. Cultivation of salt tolerant grasses like Dichanthium annulatum and Leptochloa fusca on moderate saline soils result in 1.9 t ha-1 and 3.2 t ha-1, respectively. The Unit cost is about Rs. 3000/- per ha in the first year for planting, fertilizers and labour input. The grasses used to give 3-4 cuts and together gave economic returns of about 10000/- per hectare. The technology has been widely adapted in the Bhal areas covering Tarapur, Dholka, Dhandhuka talukas and also through the NGOs in Coastal saline villages in Cambay taluka and also taken up by National Tree Growers Federation, Anand in Cambay taluka. These grasses being perennial in nature, while providing fodder also bring up the environmental stability in the area which is extremely fragile in nature.
- Farm pond technology
About 20% of the farm area is converted into on-farm reservoir to harvest excess rainwater. The dug-out soil is used to raise the land to form high and medium land situations besides the original low land situation in the farm for growing multiple and diversified crops throughout the year instead of mono-cropping with rice in Kharif season. The pond is used for rainwater harvesting, irrigation and pisciculture. Poultry/ livestock farming can also be practiced in the farm along with crops and fishes with the use of pond water. The high land free from waterlogging in kharif with less salinity build up in dry seasons and thus can be used for multi and diversified crop cultivation throughout the year. Simultaneous cultivation of rice and azolla is recommended for higher crop yield. The Performance results with respect to efficiency, sustainability are: Storage rainwater can be used to irrigate 80 % of farm land Improvement of surface drainage (about 75%), Scope for cultivating crops in rabi/summer season under salt affected soils, Multi-cropping with crops, fishes and or livestock, less risk of single crop failure and better soil health. The likely cost of intervention is about Rs. 99,000 per ha for soil excavation. The coastal agriculture is less profitable due to degraded (saline) soil and water quality, mono-cropping with traditional rice in kharif and scarcity of good quality irrigation water. The farm pond technology provides the scope for practicing diversified cropping round the year and integrated farming, creating irrigation facility, reducing salinity and improving drainage condition. Thereby, this technology enhances the livelihood security by increasing farm income and employment generation. Integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming with diversified crops on monocropped land through farm pond technology is beneficial.
- High ridge and deep furrow technology
About 50% of the farmland is shaped into alternate ridges (1.5 m top width ×1.0 m height × 3m bottom width) and furrows (3m top width × 1.5 m bottom width × 1.0 m depth). These ridges remain free of waterlogging during Kharif with less soil salinity build up in dry seasons (due to higher elevation and presence of fresh rain water in furrows). Remaining portion of the farmland including the furrows is used for growing more profitable paddycum-fish cultivation in Kharif. The rainwater harvested in furrows is used for irrigation. The remaining portion of farmland (non-furrow and non-ridge area) is used for low water requiring crops during dry (rabi/summer) seasons. The rain water stored in furrows is used for initial irrigations during rabi. The water stored in furrows is also used for fish cultivation and supplementary irrigation in Kharif. The ridges are used for cultivation of vegetables and other horticultural crops round the year instead of monocropping with rice in Kharif. The rain water stored in furrows keep the root zone soil relatively saturated with fresh water during the initial dry months after Kharif, thus reduces upward capillary flow of brackish water from shallow subsurface layer and thereby reducing the salinity build up in soil. The furrows provide better drainage and protect the crops from damages due to occasional heavy rains in rabi/ summer due to climatic disturbances. Water harvested in furrows from such rains also provides additional source of irrigation. This technology can be adopted in areas where farm pond technology cannot be adopted due to presence of acid sulphate soil at shallow soil depth. This technology enhances the livelihood security by increasing farm income and employment generation.
- Paddy-cum-fish cultivation technology
Trenches (3 m top width × 1.5 m bottom width × 1.0 m depth) are dug around the periphery of the farmland leaving about 3.5 m wide outer from boundary and the dugout soil is used for making dikes (about 1.5 m top width ×1.0 m height × 3.0 m bottom width) to protect free flow of water from the field and harvesting more rain water in the field and trench. The dikes are used for vegetable cultivation round the year. Remaining portion of the farmland including the trenches is used for more profitable paddycum-fish cultivation in kharif. The land (non trench and non dike area) is used for low water requiring crops during dry (rabi/ summer) seasons with the rain water harvested in furrows. Presence of deep furrows in the field provides better drainage condition in the field during the non-monsoon months. The likely cost of intervention is about Rs. 32,000/- per ha for soil excavation. Social status of the farmers will be enhanced due to improving their farm income. Environment will be protected due to reducing soil salinity, improving drainage, harvesting fresh rain water. This technology enhances the livelihood security by increasing farm income and employment generation.
- Shallow furrow & medium ridge technology
About 75 % of the farm land is shaped into medium ridges (1.0 m top width ×0.75 m height × 2.0 m bottom width) and furrows (2.0 m top width × 1.0 m bottom width × 0.75 m depth) with a gap of 3.5 m between two consecutive ridges and furrows. As in high ridge and deep furrow above the furrows are used for rainwater harvesting and paddy-fish-cultivation during Kharif. The cropping schedule is similar to that followed in DF except rice can be grown in furrows in Rabi/summer with lesser supplementary irrigation. This technology can be adopted when acid sulphate soil layer is present at shallow depth due to which other land shaping technologies cannot be adopted. The likely cost of intervention is about Rs. 39,000/- per ha for soil excavation. Social status of the farmers will be enhanced due to improving their farm income. Environment will be protected due to reducing soil salinity, improving drainage, harvesting fresh rain water. This technology enhances the livelihood security by increasing farm income and employment generation.
- Pond based farming system technology in waterlogged sodic soils
- Salt Tolerant high yielding rice varieties
a) CSR 10
It has a plant height of about 85 cm and matures in 120 days. It has short bold grains. It acts as acts as biological amendment for highly deteriorated sodic and inland saline soils. It is recommended for the area having highly deteriorated sodic and inland saline soils. It is excellent under high stress condition. It can tolerate sodicity up to pH2 ~10.0 and salinity up to 11 dS/m. It’s grain yield in normal soils is 6.0 tons/ha and in salt affected soils is 3.0 tons/ha
- b) CSR 23
It has a plant height of about 115 cm. It matures in 130 days. It has long slender grains. It can tolerate sodicity up to pH2 ~9.9 and salinity up to 10.0 dS/m. It is suitable for sodic soils of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and coastal saline areas of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and West Bengal. It is excellent under normal and moderately deteriorated affected soils. It’s grain yield in normal soils is 6.5 tons/ ha and in salt affected soils is 4.0 tons/ ha.
- c) CSR 27
It has a plant height of about 115 cm. It matures in 125 days. It has long slender grains. It can tolerate sodicity up to pH2~9.9 and salinity up to 10.0 dS/m. It is suitable for sodic and coastal saline areas of India. It is excellent under normal and moderately deteriorated salt affected soils. It’s grain yield in normal soils is 6.5 tons/ ha and in salt affected soils is 4.0 tons/ ha.
- d) Basmati CSR 30
It has a plant height of about 155 cm. and matures in 155 days. It has extra long slender grains. It can tolerate sodicity up to pH2 ~9.5 and salinity up to 7.0 dS/m. It is the first salt tolerant basmati variety, developed by ICAR-CSSRI and is recommended for sodic areas of UP, Haryana and Punjab. It performs very well in normal soils also. It is excellent under normal and moderately deteriorated sodic soils. Its grain average yield in normal soils is 3.0 tons/ ha and in salt affected soils is 2.0 tons/ ha.
- e) CSR 36
It has a plant height of about 110 cm. and matures in 140 days. It has long slender grains. It can tolerate sodicity up to pH2 ~9..9 and salinity up to 11.0 dS/m. It is suitable for sodic soils of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Pondicherry. It is excellent under normal and deteriorated salt affected soils. Its grain yield in normal soils in 6.5 tons/ ha and in salt affected soils is 4.0 tons/ ha.
- f) CSR 43
It has a plant height of about 95 cm. and matures in 110 days. It has short bold grains. It can tolerate sodicity up to pH2 ~10.0 and salinity up to 7.0 dS/m. It is recommended for salt affected soils including sodic soils of Uttar Pradesh. It is for salt affected soils including sodic soils of UP. It is excellent under normal and deteriorated salt affected soils. Its grain yield in normal soils is 6 tons/ ha and in salt affected soils: 3.5 tons/ ha.
- Salt Tolerant high yielding wheat varieties
a) KRL 1-4
It is a dwarf type variety with 145 days of maturity. The grain texture is hard, medium bold and amber in color. It also tolerates the salinity stress up to ECe 7.0 dSm-1. It was the first wheat variety released for saline and sodic soils of the north western plain zones of the country. It has environmental impacts as it reduces the use of chemicals for soil amendment. The yield potential in normal soils is 4.0 tonnes/ha and in sodic soils (having pH up to 9.3) is 3.0 tonnes/ha.
b) KRL 19
It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts as well as for Karnal bunt resistance. It is highly responsive to fertilizers as well as resistant to lodging and shattering even under high input, irrigated and timely sown conditions. Even moderately late sowing does not affect the yield significantly. It has amber grain colour with good grain appearance, high protein content (12%), hectoliter weight (77.4) and sedimentation value (47.4). It has been specifically bred for salt tolerance to saline (ECe 5-7 dSm-1 ) as well as alkaline (pH2 9.3 to 9.4) soil conditions. It also does well in areas, where the ground water is either brackish and/or saline (ECiw 15-20 dSm-1 , RSC 12-14 meq l-1 ). Its cultivation has environmental impacts as it reduces the use of chemicals for soil amendment. The yield potential in normal soils is 4.5 tonnes/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.3 and EC up to 7.0 dS/m) is 3.0 tonnes/ha.
c.) KRL 210
It is a semi dwarf variety. It takes about 143 days to mature. Its grains are amber in colour, bold in size and contain about 11% protein. It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts, loose smut, Karnal bunt and flag smut. It has also shown tolerance to shoot fly. The hectolitre weight of the grain is 77 Kg with sedimentation value of 39. It is recommended for salt affected soils of NWPZ and NEPZ. Its cultivation has environmental impacts as it reduces use of chemicals for soil amendment. The yield potential in normal soils is 5.2 tonnes/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.3 and EC up to 6 dS/m) is 3.5 tonnes/ha.
d.) KRL 213
It has an excellent plant type (semi dwarf), 97 days for days to flowering, 145 days to maturity in NWPZ. However in NEPZ the variety attains flowering and maturity at 91 and 128 days, respectively. It is resistant to yellow as well as brown rusts, leaf blight, Karnal bunt and hill bunt. It has amber coloured grain with 11% protein content, 77 Kg hectoliter weight and sedimentation value of 29. It is recommended for salt affected soils of NWPZ and NEPZ. It has been specifically bred for salt tolerance to saline (ECe 6.0 dSm-1 ) as well as alkaline soils (up to pH2 9.2) conditions. It also does well in areas where the groundwater is either brackish and/or saline (ECiw 15 dSm-1 ; RSC 12-14 meq l-1 ). Its cultivation has environmental impacts as it reduces the use of chemicals for soil amendment. The yield potential in normal soils is 5.1 tonnes/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.2 and EC up to 6.4 dS/m) is 3.3 tonnes/ha.
e.) KRL 283: KRL 283
It has been identified by UP state variety release committee for sodic soils of Uttar Pradesh in 2015 on the basis of good yielding ability and salt tolerance with superiority in grain yield on three years mean (15.02%, 13.68% and 5.24%) over salt tolerant checks, K-8334, NW 1067, and KRL 19 respectively. Under normal conditions its yield potential is 48-62 qt/ha while in sodic soils (pH 9.0-9.3) it gave 45-48 q/ha. KRL 283 has shown multiple stress resistance (Abiotic StressesSodicity/Alkalinity/Waterlogging/lodging /Biotic stressesStripe Rust/ Brown Rust/ Stem Rust/Karnal bunt/Aphid/Shoot fly).
- Salt Tolerant high yielding wheat varieties
- Salt Tolerant high yielding mustard varieties
a) CS 52
It grows up to a height of 170-175 cm. It matures in about 130-132 days. Its seeds are brown in colour and medium in size with 1000 seed weight more than 4.5 g. By growing in saline soils and even irrigating with saline water, 38% oil content has been determined from the seeds of this variety. It can grow economically in saline soils up to a soil salinity level (ECe) 9.0 dS m-1 and in alkali soils up to pH2 ~ 9.3. It is highly suitable for saline and sodic soil conditions. The yield potential in normal soils is 18-20 quintal/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.3 and soil salinity upto 9.0 dS/m) is 15-16 quintal/ha.
- Salt Tolerant high yielding mustard varieties
b) CS 54
It grows up to a height of 160-170 cm. It takes about 45 days for 50% flowering and matures in about 121-125 days. Its seeds are brown and bold with 1000 seed weight more than 5.0 g. Its main shoot length is around 65-70 cm and it has more than 14 seeds per siliqua. It yields around 39% oil content even under salt stress conditions. It is recommended for saline soils up to soil salinity level (ECe) of 6-9 dS m-1 and in alkali soils up to pH2 ~ 9.3. It is highly suitable for saline and sodic soil conditions. The yield potential in normal soils is 20-24 quintal/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.3 and soil salinity upto 9.0 dS/m) is 16-19 quintal/ha.
c) CS 56
It grows up to a height of 198-202 cm. It matures in about 132-135 days. It is moderately tolerant to Alternaria black spot, black leg (leaf, root and stem rot), white rust, Sclerotinia stem rot, mildew and aphids. Its oil content percent is 39. It is suitable in late sown irrigated conditions and in Rice – Mustard cropping system. It is recommended for Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan. The yield potential in normal soils is 22-26 quintal/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.3 and soil salinity upto 9.0 dS/m) is 16-19 quintal/ha.
d) CS 58
It grows up to a height of 180-185 cm. It matures in about 130-135 days and 1000 seed weight is 5.0-5.5 g. It is recommended for saline soils up to soil salinity level (ECe) up to 11.0 dS m-1 and in alkali soils up to pH2 ~ 9.4. It is highly suitable for saline and sodic soil conditions. It yields around 40% oil content even under salt stress conditions. The yield potential in normal soils is 26-28 quintal/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.4 and soil salinity upto 9.0 dS/m) is 20-22 quintal/ha.
e) CS 60
It grows up to a height of 182-187 cm. It matures in about 125-132 days and 1000 seed weight is 5.0-5.2 g. It is recommended for saline soils up to soil salinity level (ECe) up to 12.0 dS m-1 and in alkali soils up to pH2 ~ 9.5. It is highly suitable for saline and sodic soil conditions. It yields around 41% oil content even under salt stress conditions. The yield potential in normal soils is 25-29 quintal/ha and in salt affected soils (having pH up to 9.5 and soil salinity upto 12 dS/m) is 20-22 quintal/ha.
Azotobacter sp. bacteria plays important role in fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in soil. This bacterial species is free living and has IAA and siderophore production attribute. When applied to soil, it fixes N and make it available to the plant. It supplements nitrogen requirement of crops and also promotes plant growth under salt stress. It can be used for rice, wheat, mustard, millets and vegetables. When applied as seed inoculants, it can add 15-20 kg N/ha to the soil. It helps in increasing crop yield by 10-15 per cent. The liquid formulation developed at ICAR-CSSRI, RRS, Lucknow has the following features:
- Formulation contains highly efficient salt tolerant N-fixing bacteria that can be used in normal as well as salt affected soils.
- Liquid formulation of Halo-Azo can be used for rice, wheat, mustard, fodder and vegetables crops.
- The formulation is more suited for soils with pH in the range of 7.5 to 9.8.
- Inoculation of N-fixers helps to augment 10 to 15 kg N ha-1 . Keep soils biologically active and helps in soil health maintenance
- The liquid formulation has a shelf life of over one year.
- The liquid bioformulation can be stored at room temperature. · It is convenient to use as seed inoculation, seedling root dip and soil application.
Phosphorus solubilising bacteria plays important role in dissolution of insoluble soil phosphorus through secretion of organic acids and other metabolites. When applied to soil, it converts insoluble form of P to soluble form and makes it available to the plants. The liquid formulation developed at ICAR-CSSRI, RRS, Lucknow has the following features:
- Formulation contains highly efficient salt tolerant strains of P solubilizing bacteria that can be used in normal as well as salt affected soils.
- It ensures better root development and better nutrient uptake and thereby vigorous crop growth
- Liquid formulation of Halo-PSB can be used for rice, wheat, mustard, maize and vegetables crops.
- The liquid formulation is tested to suit soils with pH in the range of 7.5 to 9.7.
- Inoculation of P solubilizer helps to augment 15 to 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 . Keep soils biologically active and helps in soil health maintenance.
- The liquid formulation has a shelf life of over one year at room temperature.
- It is convenient to use as seed inoculation, seedling root dip and soil application.
- GypKit: A field kit for Rapid assessment of soil sodicity and estimating gypsum requirement to reclaim sodic soil.
- It is very essential to estimate the gypsum requirement of sodic soil before going for chemical reclamation to avoid any over or under use of the amendments. The laboratory method for determination of gypsum requirement of sodic soils is very tedious and time consuming. This kit is user friendly and can be useful for farmers for assessing soil sodicity and estimating quantum of mineral gypsum required for sodic soil reclamation to optimize crop production.
- This field kit is devised in such a way that it can be easily used at the farm itself and does not require electricity or any power source. It is tested and validated with traditional laboratory method.
- GypCal Mobile App: A Decision Support System for Soil Sodicity Assessment and Gypsum Requirement
The GypCal (Gypsum Calculator) App was developed for smart phones and works on Android platform. This App is user friendly and can be useful for field functionaries, researchers, line department officials as well as farmers desirous of chemical reclamation of sodic soil for optimizing crop production in Indo-Gangetic plains by calculating the gypsum requirement in bags (of 50 Kg), total depth of water required for leaching, expected yield of salt tolerant as well as traditional varieties of rice-wheat after chemical reclamation. It also estimates ESP of the sodic soil. The software calculates the gypsum requirement on the basis of the mathematical equations obtained through curve fitting. The Mobile App is compatible with all the smart phone handsets with Android operating system commonly available in Indian markets. GypCal Mobile Application has now been published at Google play store. It is freely available for user to download (In Hindi and English). The link of the application is: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=gypcal.shyamsanginfosys.com&hl=en Anyone can download on their Andriod Mobiles/Tabs/Smart Phones and use the application.
- Salinity Expert Mobile App:
It a user friendly app available in hindi version compatible to Android phone featuring: · Knowledge based digital compendium including management practices for rice, wheat and mustard crops under salty environments right from sowing to harvesting
- Aadhar/Mobile Login ID based digitization of soil health cards (SHCs) including farmer’s basic information, soil fertility and water quality analysis
- Digitization of soil fertility status and water quality maps of study domain under farmer FIRST project
- Estimated gypsum requirement considering inherent soil sodicity (pH) and residual alkalinity in irrigation water (RSC) and their concomitant effect on crop yields (yield predictions) The application can be freely downloaded from the Google play store. The link of the application is: