The Division is pursuing to evaluate and assess socio-economic impact of the technologies developed by the institute. These technologies are transferred to the farmers and other stakeholders through frontline demonstrations, farmers’ fairs, exhibitions and other extension methods. The development of human resource through trainings on reclamation and management of salt affected soils and use of poor quality water in agriculture.
Salient achievements of the division are as follows.
- Alkali land reclamation, saline soil reclamation using subsurface drainage, afforestation in salt affected soils and use of poor quality water in agriculture have been economically evaluated. These technologies have quite visible impact on soil health, crop yield, farm income, food security, employment generation, capital formation, empowering womenfolk and weaker sections of the society, ground water recharge and environment which ultimately lead to positive socio-economic changes in the society and integrated rural development.
- About 1.8 million ha alkali land has been reclaimed by adoption of technology developed by CSSRI. This area is contributing more than 12 million tonnes of paddy-wheat annually besides generating farm employment 250 million man-days
- Subsurface drainage technology, evolved by CSSRI, has been established at farmer’s field with the help of state governments as a pilot projects which made a fillip in overcoming the salinity and waterlogging problems. This technology has been adopted in nearly 60,000 ha area in the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra
- The CSSRI technology on use of saline/ alkali water is being widely adopted in the states of Haryana, Punjab, U.P., A.P., Gujarat, etc. Out of 13.2 million ha-m use of ground waters, about 3.2 million ha-m is through exploitation of poor quality waters. The CSSRI technologies have contributed nearly one-tenth part of this, the expected increase in terms of food grain production is amounting to over Rs 750 crores in addition to generation of rural employment and environmental benefits
- Salt tolerant varieties of rice (CSR 10, CSR 13, CSR 23, CSR 27, CSR 30 and CSR 36), wheat (KRL 1-4, KRL 19, KRL 210, KRL 213), mustard (CS 52, CS 54, CS 56) and gram (Karnal Chana 1), developed by CSSRI, have been successfully demonstrated on farmer’s field which ultimately contributed a lot on the livelihood and prosperity of the beneficiary farmers.
- The auger-hole technology of the CSSRI for plantation on alkali soils has become popular and being adopted by various stakeholders including foresters. Agro-forestry techniques developed by the institute have resulted in raising tree plantations in more than 50,000 ha salt affected soils
Benefit-Cost Analysis of CSSRI Technologies
- The investment made for evolving technology to reclaim alkali land in India has been proved economically viable as it provided net present worth of Rs 425 million along with B-C ratio 7.8 and internal rate of return 65.5 percent at national level.
- At farm level, CSSRI technology package for alkali soil reclamation has been shown to have a favourable benefit-cost ratio (1.5) with a pay back period of 3 years and internal rate of return of 21%. The B-C ratio in case of afforestation with Acacia was 1.6. The capital required for control of salinity and waterlogging had a B-C ratio of 1.4 with an internal rate of return of 13% and pay back period 5 years.
- As a result of adoption of CSSRI technologies for alkali soil reclamation, reclaimed lands are producing an additional food grain production valued at nearly Rs 1260 crores per annum.
- Reclamation activity during 1970-2006 in Punjab, Haryana and U.P. generated a one-time employment in the first year of reclamation for about 54 million man-days. In addition, now it would generate an annual employment of over 240 million man-days each year for rice-wheat cultivation on the reclaimed lands.
- The auger-hole technology is being used by state forest departments for planting tree saplings in salt affected as well other soils. Afforestation resulted in significant increase in fuel wood availability and led to ecological rehabilitation in terms of improvement in soil quality and environment.
- Majority of alkali lands are in the possession of socially deprived sections of the society. Reclamation of alkali lands generated employment and income uplifted their financial and social status, giving them a sense of pride. It also contributed to social equity
- Alkali land reclamation contributed to environmental improvement like reduction in flood hazard, increased fodder and fuel wood supplies, increased ground water recharge and soil amelioration etc. Some of these outputs need to be appropriately monitored to quantify real term benefits
- Benefits also accrued in minimizing incidence of malaria, filaria and other waterborne diseases
Transfer of Technology
- Successful demonstration of alkali soil reclamation technology in ORP villages was done and has been an important accomplishment of the institute.
- Demonstration of salt tolerant 6 varieties of rice, 4 varieties of wheat and 3 varieties of mustard in alkali soil has been done and also being done every year under front line demonstration to popularise these varieties in salt stress environment.
- Procedures to assess damage by waterlogging and salinity in irrigation commands were developed and applied to several irrigation command areas
- Knowledge tests on different aspects of reclamation and management of salt affected soils were developed for use in extension education programmes. Models were formulated to predict adoption of reclamation technology by different categories of farmers
- Through trainings and other human resource development programmes, over 1350 subject matter specialists working in State Departments were trained.
- Mass media programmes and farmers’ fairs were conducted frequently to transfer the technologies developed to the target groups. The institute regularly organizes 2 Kisan Melas, 3-4 farmer’s days and 8-10 exhibitions for demonstrating institute’s technologies and distribution of salt tolerant crop varieties to the farmers.
- The institute organizes field visits of experimental farm, information technology centre and laboratories of the CSSRI to various types of stake holders such as farmers, extension personals, SMSs, scientists and agriculture graduate/ post graduate students.
- Development and standardization of scale on attitude of farmers, extension workers and subject-matter specialists towards selected aspects of salty soils.